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33 Cards in this Set

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What is absolutism?
In absolutism sovereignty or the right to rule resides solely in the king. During the 17th c. absolutism was based on divine right. It was also very practical since formed state bureaucracies and standing armies
what is the house of austria called
what are 3 characteristics of these new absolutist state?
3 characteristics
1)growing bureaucracy
This meant there were more paid officials who depended on the government for their salary. This also meant that many jobs were sold so the kings could satisy their short term financial needs (corruption).
2)permanent standing army
Armies now had to be maintained annually (huge cost).
3)permanent taxes
monarchs had to pay the standing armies to suppress the peasants who were angry abt high taxes
Although Louiv XIV impressed Eastern europe with his absolutism Eastern absolutism developed differently. Give examples of this
1) serfs were suppressed
This promoted social and economic unity. political& police power werew used to maintain control over serfs
2)powerful nobility
3)weak bourgeoise
4)conducted foreign relations as they wanted
how were Serfs restricted?
1) The kings were asked by the nobility to restrict the mobility of serfs. This meant serfs couldnt improve their lives by moving to a better town. They were also punished if they ran away.
2)Their rights to land ownership were taken away and they had to pay heavy taxes.
3) serfs could be killed by nobles
what is hereditary subjugation and what led to the rise in serfdom?
Hereditary subjugation is when peasants were bound to both their lord and the land. The rise in serfdom was due to
1)kings wanting to exploit serfs
2) towns could not offer refuge for runaways so serfs had nowhere to go.
Austria consisted of at least 12 ethnicities, each speaking its own language. What kept Austria together? What sanction passed in 1713 reflects this?
In face of all its diversity the only thing that unified Austria was its ruler.
Charles VI (1711-1740) devised the pragmatic sanction as insurance that there would not be a divided sucession. He made sure that there would be one specified line of rulers that the diets in the empire would recognize.
what were the results of Ferdinand II(1637-1657) winning the Battle of White Mountain?
After crushing the revolt in 1620 at the Battle of the White Mountain he reduced the power of the Bohemian estates (they had revolted in order to defend Protestant rights). He also took Protestant lands and awarded them to Catholics. Then after 1650 the majority of the Bohemian nobility was foreign born and owed everything to the Hapbsburgs (making them more loyal).
Did the attack of the Ottomans on Austria in the late 17th century weaken the Habsburgs?
No, it was the Ottomans who were weakened since they had to retreat.
who was the Hohenzollern family and why was it so shocking when this family gained so much power?
The Hohenzollerns is the house of brandenburg(Prussian nobility). Altho they were the eleectors of Brandburg they had little military strength and hardly any princely power. They had no land that could be defended well since it was cut off from the sea. Their land had been ravaged by the 30 yrs war(foreign armies ahd also weakened the power of the estates). They had a small population
Characteric of 17th c. europe were the small states that were somehow able to exert more force than what would be expected from their tiny size. why is this?
Keep in mind that difficulties w/sending out supplies, communicating and the crappy roads meant that not that many soldiers could by deploted.Small states had the advantage of having small, well-trained, disciplined and equpped armies. They were even able to beat their bigger neighbors if they were able commanded and economically employed.
what were some important developments in the early 17th c. for the tiny Hohenzollern family?
They obtained the bishopric of Halberstadt and Magdeburg. They also got Farther Pomerania which connected Brandenburg to the Baltic. Furthermore, they obtained the dutchy of Prussia
Altho Prussia is famous for its incredible army was its original motive to kill or to try to be at peace?
The Great Elector, Fredrick William, wanted to have a strong army so he could enter into the the politics of the balance of power. However, he hoped to have an "army in being" but not have to use it. He hoped to gain his ends thru diplomatic maneuver and use the army as a last resort. It also was the only thing used that all Prussians participated in.
what did Frederick the elector do to assert power?
He forced the estates to accept taxation without consent. So their power was removed while the Great Elector became finacially independent and had a stronger force. The state's revenue tripled during his reign.
what were the results of having an army
1)Well, aside from being well protected skills in rural areas had to be imported from the West. This is because they had to pay high taxes. With their new skills they could become more productive which was needed since the monarchs were having difficulties paying for the armies out of their own crown domain (the money they obtain from businesses they owned).
what were the social affects of the army
The civilian class became submissive. The rulers absorbed the Junkers, or the landed aristocracy, into their military service. They used the army to force unity since Prussians from Cleves, Brandenburg etc had to get together and fight for a common purpose. Also, military values started to characterize the Prussian nobility.
how did Frederick William AKA the soldiers king (1713-1740) consolidate absolutist power and make Prussia AKA the "Sparta of the North"
1) He established Prussian absolutism by creating the best army in europe. his army increased from 38,000 to 83,000 during his reign
2)He then incorporated strict military values into society
3)he loved tall men and sent army recruits to find them
4) he created a strong centralized bureaucracy.
Frederick the Great, the son of the insane Frederick I.
This guy attacked MAria Theresa for her land as soon as her father, Charles VI had died. So he disobeyed the Pragmatic sanction of 1713. The addition of silesia made the nation a great power
how was Russia different from the rest of europe?
1) it had been under the power of the Mongols until 1480 when Ivan beat them
2)Russian geography. They lacked warm water or ice-free ports. This explains why they did not share as much in the european developments after 1100
3)Russia had converted to the Greek Orthodox. Gence they were under the influence of Constantinople and not rome
how were the princes able to gain power back from the Mongols?
Well, the mongols didnt get rid of the title "great prince" since they used the local princes as servants or tax collector. So the princes who pleased the mongols would get paid. This allowed for Muscovite princes to destroy their rivals and replace the khan with some other supreme ruler. This is exemplified in Ican III (1462-1505) who stopped acknowledging the foreign Khan and saw himself as the supreme ruler or Khan
what did Ivan the Terrible(1533-1584) do to reaffirm Russian absolutist power?
Ivan IV (1533-1584)
1)he declcared war on the last of the Mongols
2)abolished the private property that was hereditary among the boyars (russian noblity).
3)all nobles had to serve the tsar to hold land. This is why they were called the service nobility. They were also dependent on him.
4) he was harsh w/the boyars since he blamed them for his wife's death. He had them executed by a secret police.
how did Ivan IV aka the terrible restrict the bourgeois?
*keep in mind how a German visitor to Russia wrote in 1571 "all ppl consider themselves to be kholops, that is, slaves of their prince."
1)he controlled trade.
2)even the richest merchant was dependent on him
3)anything new&profitable was turned into a royal monopoly.
who is Ivan Bolotnikov
He led the Cossack bands and rallied peasants and killed nobles. He called for a "true tsar" who would restore mobility to them and reduce the ehavy taxes. They were crushed by the nobles
Times of Trouble
This is the name applied to the period after Ivan IV's death when no one knew what the heck was going on. While nobles elected tsar they demanded guarantees of liberty.
In order to settle the problems a 17 yr old boy was elected in a national assembly in 1613. who was he?
in 1613 Michael Romanov was elected. He was the grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible and was believed young enuf to be unrelated to any of the arguing factions.
What led to tightening of the control of peasants?
the rebellion of the Cossacks, led by Stenka Razin, scared the crap out of everyone so serfdom was controlled more than ever.
Peter's reign had 1 yr of peace. This is surprising considering what abt the Russian army?
The Russian army really sucked at first.
1)however, he rebuilt his army,
2)he employed European officers of different nationalities (paying them half as much as native Russians of the same position),
3)he put his soldiers in to uniforms resembling that of the west
4)organzied regiments in standardized composition.
What strong absolutist state did Peter the Great enter into an alliance w/ Denmark and the elector of saxony against?
Sweden and they had an awesome army. Peter thought he had an easy win since some of their land was scattered but he was wrong. so he created special schools and universities to produce experts on war. he had every young nobleman study abroad for 5 years. his society was meritocracy (position based on competence not how much money u bribe someone w/to get it). he won the Great Northern War against Sweden in 1709 at the battle of Poltava
how did Peter institute a social revolution?
he really hated everything that reminded him of old russia.
1) all gentry had to send their sons to school
2)Russian alaphabet was simplified.
3)ordered the 1st newspaper
4)ordered the making of a book on etiquette or proper decorum.
5)forbade beard in russia& had Russians copy Ger. style
How did Peter the Great treat the serfs?
like crap! He passed edicts that allowed entire villages of serfs to be purchased so they could work 4 factories. Another edict ensured serfdom by supporting the right of landowners to sell their serfs (as long as families werent broken up).
how did peter the Great reform the church?
he made sure that a more secular rule was emphasized. This is seen when the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church died in 1700 and Peter didnt appoint a successor. He relied on clerics to manage the church. He wanted a govt. in charge of church afairs which he ensured with his establishment of the Holy Synod.
What was so Great abt St. Petersburg?
It was the window on the West. It was meant to be a symbol of the New Russia. He required noblement to build homes, and gave favorable terms to foereign merchants so they would settle in St. Petersburg. It replaced the old capital, Moscow.
why was mercantilism encouraged? and how was it encouraged?
the army was very costly so Peter needed taxes. There were poll taxes on land, inns mills,coffins, have a beard, be an old believer etc.
1) peter encouraged exports
2)built a fleet on the Baltic
3) he developed mining, metalurgy and textiles.