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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of a Network
Transmission Speeds
-Binary digit (bit): 0's and 1's
-Byte: 8 bits equal a byte
-Kiliobit(Kb): 1000 bits
-Kilobyte(KB) 1000 bytes
-Kilobits per second (kbps)
-Kilobyte per second (kBps)
-Megabit (Mb): 1 million bits
-Megabyte (MB): 1 million byes
-Megabit per second (Mbps)
-Megabyte per second (MBps)
OSI Referance Model Benefits
-Reducing complexity: The OSI model breaks network communication into smaller, simpler parts.
-Standardizing interfaces: The OSI model standardizes network components to allow multiple vendor development and support.
-Facilitating modular engineering: The OSI model allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other.
-Ensuring interoperable technology: The OSI model prevents changes in one layer from affecting the other layers, allowing for quicker development.
-Accelerating evolution: The OSI model provides for effective updates and improvements to individual components without affecting other components or having to rewrite the entire protocol.
-Simplifying teaching and learning: The OSI model breaks network communication into smaller components to make learning easier.
OSI - Physical Layer
The Physical Layer defines electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems.
OSI - Data Link Layer
(LLC - Logical Link Control)
(MAC - Media Access Control)
The Data Link layer defines how data is formatted for transmission and how access to the physical media is controlled. This layer typically includes error detection and correction to ensure reliable delivery of the data.
OSI - Network Layer
The Network Layer provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may be located on geographically seperate networks.
OSI - Transport Layer
The Transport Layer handles transportation issues between hosts, ensures data transport reliability, and provides reliability through fault detection and recovery of information utilizing flow control.
OSI - Session Layer
The Session Layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications.
OSI - Presentation Layer
The Presentation Layer ensures data is readable by the receiving system, formats data, structures data, and provides data encryption.
OSI - Application Layer
Provides network services to application processes such as e-mail, FTP, and terminal emulation, and provides user authentication.
Network Protocol - EIA-232-D
Defines asynchronous serial connections. The COM port of a PC uses this standard - Layer 1
Network Protocol - HDLC
(High Level Data Link Control Protocol) Specifies encapsulation for synchronous serial data links using bit-orientated framing - Layer 2
Network Protocol - PPP
(Point to Point Protocol) Provides synchronous and asynchronous point-to-point connections - Layer 2
Network Protocol - ISDN
Communication protocols that allow telephone networks to carry voice, data, graphics, music, and video. Layer 1-3
Network Protocol - TCP
Reliable transport method for IP packets - Layer 4
Network Monitoring - Protocol Analyzers
Captures and decodes packets of data that are transmitted on the network between computers. (Ethereal and Windows Performance Monitor/System Monitor)
Network Monitoring - Packet Sniffer
Captures and determines what data is being transmitted. (Sniffer)
Network Management Software
Document devices on a network, manage software licenses, control computers on the network remotes, and send notifications of network problems. (SMS, Tivioli Enterprises, and HP Open View)
(Small office, home office) This environment typically has only a few computers, and peripheals.
Enterprise LAN
This environment may include multiple LAN's in a large office building or even in different buildings on a corporate campus. There is usually hundreds of computers and peripherals in each LAN.
Ethernet MAC Address Components
48 Total Bits
1 Bit Broadcast
1 Bit Local
22 Bit OUI (Organizational Unique Identifier)
24 Bit Vendor Assigned
Ethernet Frame Structure
- 7 or 8 Byte Preamble: Synchronize signals of the communicating computers
- 1 Byte Start of Frame Delimiter: Signals receiving computer that transmission is going to start
- 6 Byte Destination Address: Address of the NIC on the local network to which the packet is being sent
- 6 Byte Source Address: Contains Address of the sending computer
- 2 Byte Length/Type: Identifies network layer protocol.
- 46-1500 Byte Data/Pad: Contains payload of data
- 4 Byte Frame Check Sequence - Mechanism that checks to ensure that the packet of data has been transmitted without corruption
Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast
Unicast - Frame sent from one device to a single destination
Broadcast - Frame sent from one device to all other connected devices or addresses
Multicast - Frame sent from one device to a specific group of devices.
Stations on a CSMA/CD can access the network at anytime. Before sending data, CSMA/CD stations listen to the network to determine whether it is already in use. If it is in use, they wait. If the network is not in use, the stations transmit. A collision occurs when two stations listen for network traffic, hear none, and transmit simultaneously.
NIC Card
Also called a LAN adapter, the NIC plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. The MAC address is burned onto each NIC by the manufacturer, providing a unique, physical network address that permist the device to participate in the network.
Cable Standards
-10BaseT - 100 meters (328 feet) RJ-45 (Twisted Copper Pair) 10 Meg
-100BaseTX - 100 meters (328 feet) RJ-45 (Twisted Copper Pair) 100 Meg
-100BaseFX - 400 meters (1312 feet) MIC (Multimode fiber) 100 Meg
-1000BaseCX - 25 meters (82 feet) RJ-45 (Shielded Twisted Copper Pair) 1000 Meg
-1000BaseT - 100 meters (328 feet) RJ-45 (Twisted Copper Pair) 1000 Meg
-1000BaseSX - 260 meters (853 feet) *** (Multimode fiber) 1000 Meg
-1000BaseLX - 3-10 KM (1 - 6 Miles) *** (Singlemode fiber) 1000 Meg
Gigabit Interface Converter is a hot-swappable I/O device that plugs into a Gigabit Ethernet port. A key benefit of using a GBIC is that it is interchangeable. This allows users the flexibility to deploy other 1000Base-X technology without having the need to change the physical interface or model on the router or switch. GBIC support UTP and fiber media for gigabit Ethernet transmissions.
Use Straight-through cables for the following devices
Switch to Router
Switch to PC or Server
Hub to PC or Server
Use Crossover cables for the following devices
Switch to Switch
Switch to Hub
Hub to Hub
Router to Router
PC to PC
Router Ethernet port to PC
Physical Topology vs Logical Topology
Describes the layout for wiring the physical devices, while a logical topology describes how information flows through a network.
Ethernet Segment Distance Limitations
10Base-T - 100 m
10Base-FL - 2000 m
100Base-TX - 100 m
100Base-FX - 400 m
1000Base-T - 100 m
1000Base-LX - 550 m
1000Base-SX - 250 m
1000Base-CX - 25 m
Is a network connection made by a single unbroken network cable.
Collision Domain
The network segments that share the same bandwidth are called collision domains because two or more devices communicate at the same time, collisions may occur with that segment.
Function of switch within a network segment.
Switches will divide network segments to reduce the number of devices that are competing for bandwidth on a given segment and to provide more bandwidth to the devices in the segment.
Causes of Network Congestion
- Increasingly powrful computer and network technologies
- Increasing volume of network traffic
- High-bandwidth applications
Bridge characteristics and benefits
- Operate at Layer 2.
- Bridges analyze incoming frames and forward or drop based on address information.
- Bridges buffer frames between two or more LAN segments.
-Bridges create more collision domains, allowing more than one device to transmit simultaneously without causing a collision.
- Bridges maintain a MAC address table.
- Bridges isolate potential network problems to specific segments.
- Minimize network traffic by filtering data frames within or between LAN segments.
- Extend a LAN to cover greater distances by joining multiple segments.
Router Memory Types
- ROM: Stores bootstrap, OS, and the Post. (retained)
- RAM: Stores routing tables and the running-config. (lost)
- Flash: Stores IOS (retained)
- NVRAM: Stores start-up config (retained)
Switches use one of two forwarding methods
Cut-through: The switch determines which port to forward the data and starts the process without buffering the data. This is the faster of the two methods, but no error checking is used.

Store and Forward: The switch stores the data in buffers until the complete frame is received. During this process the switch performs error checking

Fragment-Free Switching: The frame is not forwarded until there is no possiblity of a collision occuring
BGP process for establishing a connection with a Peer
Idle --> Connect --> Active --> OpenSent --> OpenConfirm --> and Established.