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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of a memory?
A permanent change in the CNS that can be reproduced exactly at a later time
4 required conditions for memory:
1. Environmental and/or organism's own activity
2. CNS change
3. Maintain change
4. Subsequent behavior related to input
2 main forms of Long Term Memory:
1. Explicit (declarative)
2. Implicit (nondeclarative)
What is Explicit memory?
Facts and events
Where is explicit memory mediated?
Medial temporal lobe
What is Implicit memory?
Associative Learning
Nonassociative learning
Where are Priming memories mediated?
Where are Procedural memories mediated?
What are 2 types of Associative learning memories and where is each mediated?
-Emotional; Amygdala
-Skeletal muscle; Cerebellum
What is Nonassociative learning?
Habituation and Sensitization
Where are Nonassociative learning memories mediated?
In Reflex Pathways
So what would cause you to forget all you've learned in medical school?
Damage to the medial temporal lobe
What are the 2 main types of Declarative/Explicit memory?
What is Episodic memory?
Recollection of incidents that occurred at a particular time in the past.
What is Semantic memory?
Knowledge of facts and concepts, but not linked to a time and place.
2 types of amnesia:
What is Anterograde amnesia?
Memory loss followed by the inability to learn new info
What is Retrograde amnesia?
Inability to recall information that was learned prior to the memory loss
Who was HM?
A patient that had epilepsy in his temporal lobe
What happened to HM?
Surgeons decided to try to stop his epileptic seizures by removing the medial temporal lobe.
What exactly did surgeons remove from HM?
His bilateral temporal lobes
What type of amnesia did HM develop?
Anterograde - he could not learn anything new, couldn't store any new memories.
What is the moral of HM's story?
Psychosurgery = bad; don't remove the bilateral temporal lobes.
What deficits result from removing the right temporal lobe?
Spatial deficits
What deficits result from removing the left temporal lobe?
Speech deficits - word recall
What brain structure is it that gives differential deficits when removed from right vs left lobe?
The hippocampus
What is the Frontal Lobe's role in memory?
What part of the frontal cortex is important in encoding information for Episodic memory?
Left frontal cortex
What part of the frontal cortex is important in encoding information for Episodic memory retrieval?
Right frontal cortex
Is semantic memory affected much by the frontal lobe?
What is autobiographical memory?
A composite of facts and events - both semantic and episodic
Does ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) help memory recall?
Lesioning what area will take away recall of the past, but won't affect the ability lay down new memories?
Anterior temporal pole
Are all semantic memories uniformly "solid"?
No; some are easier to remember than others.
What do we call it when oldest memories can be recalled easily, but not more newly created memories?
A temporal gradient
What do patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy due to Korsikoff's syndrome have problems with?
Recalling more recent events
Where did patient PZ, who wrote his own autobiography and then tested his ability to recall over the next few decades, have lesions?
-DMN of thalamus
-Mamillary bodies
What does ECT do to the ability to retrieve remote memories?
Makes recalling recent events much worse.
Why can memories vary in terms of how "solid" they are?
Because there is a time period where memories are unstable and can be disrupted by brain insult.
What brain structure is involved in solidifying and consolidating memory?
What is the main difference between Explicit and Implicit memory?
-We are conscious of explicit
-We are unconscious of implicit
What is Priming?
An improvement in identification of a partial item after a recent exposure to the entire item
What does Priming help you do?
Pick out things that are alike and generalize
What area is involved in priming?
Posterior neocortex regions - the occipital temporal junction.
How do we know priming doesn't occur in the medial temporal lobe?
Bc in an amnestic person whose free recall is poor, their ability to recall after priming is actually much better.
What is an example of PROCEDURAL learning?
Skills and habits - like a surgeon learning a procedure.
Brain structure responsible for procedural learning:
When HM was given a Pursuit Rotor task and practiced every day what happened to his percent error?
It improved!
How did HM improve?
Because procedural learning is not in the temporal lobe - it's in the striatum
What is Classical conditioning?
The pairing of a response to a reward
What type of learning is classical conditioning?
What does Working memory do?
Holds information online so you can rapidly recall it for a basic cognitive task.
How long is working memory retention?
Does HM have working memory? Why/why not?
Yes - because it's not contained in the medial temporal lobe.
What does the Atkinson-Shifrin model of short and long-term memory say?
That you have to go through Short-term working memory to get to long-term memory.
What is the problem with the Atkinson-Shifrin model?
You can have focal SHORTterm memory loss, but normal longterm memory; so it can't be true.
What brain areas are associated with working memory?
Prefrontal brain areas
What are 3 general types of conditions that produce memory loss?
-Normal aging
-Cortical dementia
-Subcortical dementia
What happened to superman in his later years?
Dang he forgot where he was going
What type of memory does aging most profoundly affect?
Associative memory performance
How does Huntington's disease cause memory deficits?
Dysruption in the basal ganglia disrupts connections to the frontal lobe.
What type of memory is disrupted in Huntington's?
Procedural memory
What is the specific deficit in Alzheimer's disease that causes memory loss?
Cholinergic deficit
What areas are affected by the cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer's? How do we know?
-Parietal/temporal/frontal cortices
We see a 75-90% volume reduction!
2 Cortical dementias:
-Neimann Pick
What type of memory loss occurs in Cortical dementias? Why?
-Severe anterograde memory loss
-Due to storage and consolidation problems
What area is involved in cortical dementias?
Medial temporal
What are 5 Subcortical dementias?
-Normal pressure hydrocephalus
-Multiple sclerosis
-Head injury
What type of memory loss occurs in Cortical dementias? Why?
-Milder anterograde memory loss
-Due to retrieval deficits
What area is involved in Subcortical dementias?
Frontostriatal circuits
What do the symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus mimic?
Alzheimer's - progressive memory loss.
Why does MS cause memory loss?
Because of the loss of myelin due to autoimmune destruction, and loss of nerve conduction.
Why does head injury cause memory loss?
Hope it's self explanatory..