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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Apnea
Apnea is the absence of breathing.
Arrhythmia (dysrhythmia)-
A pulse with an irregular rhythm.
Blood Pressure
The force of blood against aterial walls.Highest pressure is systolic pressure. The lowest is diastolic pressure
Normal adult BP is 120/80
Most6 important is systolic and cannot get diastolic by palpation
Bradypnea
Abnormally slow respirations.
Lower than 10
Bradycardia
A heart rate in an adult of 60 BPM or less.
Cardiac Output
Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped into the arteries by the heart and equals the result of the stroke volume(SV) times the heart rate(HR) per minute. (p. 496)
Core Temperature-
Core temperature is maintained a fairly consistant range via the thermoregulatory center via the hypothalamus.
Temp is Q4 in hospitals. ( with exceptions)
97.0- 99.5 F
36.0-37.5 C
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration
Marked rhythmic waxing and waning of respirations from very deep to very shallow breathing and temporary apnea; common causes include congestive heart failure, increased intracranial pressure and drug overdose. (p. 1297)
Diaphragmatic Breathing
Diaphragmatic breathing involves the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, and is observed by the movement of the abdomen.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
Blood pressure when the ventricles are at rest. It is the lower blood pressure.
Dyspnea
Difficult or uncomfortable breathing.
Eupnea-
Breathing that is normal in rate and depth.
Exhalation
Breathing out or the movement of gases from the lungs to the atmosphere.
Pyrexia
A body temperature above the normal range.
Hypertension
A blood pressure that is consistently above normal.
Hyperthermia
A body temperature above the normal range. Also called a fever or pyrexia.
Hyperventilation
Refers to very deep rapid respirations.
Hypotension
A blood pressure that is below normal.
Hypothermia
A core body temperature below the lower limit of normal.
Hypoventilation
Very shallow respirations.
Inhalation
Refers to the intake of air into the lungs.
Intermittent Fever-
The body temperature alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temperatures.
(comes and goes)
Pulse Pressure
The difference between the diastolic and systolic pressures.
Systolic Blood Pressure
The pressure of the blood as a result of contraction of the ventricles.
Tachycardia
An excessively fast heart rate (over 100 BPM in an adult).
Tachypnea
Abnormally fast respirations.
Ventilation
Movement of air into and out of the lungs.
Vital Signs-
Pulse, Temp, Blood Pressure, Respirations
(5th vital sign -pain)
Identify four ways the body loses heat.
Radiation: the transfer of heat from surface of one object to the surface of another w/o contact between the two.
2. Conduction is the transfer of heat from one molecule to a molecule of lower temperature.
3. Convection is the dispersion of heat by air currents.
4. Vaporization is the continuous evaporation of moisture from the respiratory tract and from the mucosa of the mouth and from the skin.
Describe the role of the hypothalamus in regulating body temperature.
Hypothalamic integrator, the center that controls the core temperature, is located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.When sensors in the hypothalamus detect heat, they send out signals intended to reduce the temperature, and vice versa
Describe the factors affecting body temperature.
Circadian rhythms
Age
Gender
Stress
Environmantal temperatures
What are the 4 common types of fever?
1. Intermittent: temperature alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temperatures.
2. Remittent: wide range of temperature fluctuations occurs over a 24 hour period, all above normal.
3. Relapsing- Short febrile periods of a few days are interspersed with periods of one to two days of normal temperatures.
4. Constant- The body temperature fluctuates minimally but always remains above normal.
What is hyperpyrexia?
Very high fever.
Describe nursing interventions for client with a fever.
What should be monitored?
Monitor vital signs, white blood cell count, hematocrit value, and other pertinent laboratory reports for indication of infection or dehydration, intake and output, skin color and temperature
Identify the four most common sites for measuring body temperature. In your discussion include the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Oral
Rectal
Axillary
Tympanic
Identify the average pulse rate of an adult.
The average pulse rate of an adult is 60
Differentiate between peripheral pulse and apical pulse.
A peripheral pulse is a pulse located away from the heart for example in the foot, wrist or neck.
The apical pulse in contrast is a central pulse, that is, it is located at the apex of the heart.
Describe pulse rhythm and pulse volume. (
• Pulse rhythm is the pattern of the beats and the intervals between the beats. Equal time elapses between beats of a normal pulse.
• Pulse volume also called the pulse strength or amplitude refers to the force of the blood with each beat.
Average respiratory rate of an adult.
12-24
Differentiate between external and internal respiration.
• External refers to the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the lungs and the pulmonary blood.
• Internal respiration by contrast takes place throughout the body; it is the interchange of these same gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the circulating blood and the cells of the body tissues.
Identify factors that affect blood pressure.
Age ( the older adult has lower BP due to the elasticity of arteries
Circadian rhythm (BP is usually lower in the am)
Race(hypertension is more prevalant in African American mena and woman)
Drugs/men (oral contraceptives cause a mild increae in BP)
Gender (woman usally have lower BP than men untill menopuase)
Food intake (BP increases after eating)
Exercise (systolic BP rises during periods of exercise)
Emotions ( generally causes BP to rise)
Body positions (BP lower when prone or supine than when standing or sitting)
Identify sites that may be used for measuring blood pressure.
Brachial artery and popliteal artery anre most commonly used
Piloerection
goose bumps, skin is site of primary heat loss
Pulse rate
is the number of pulsations felt over a peripheral artery, or the apex of the heart
Blood pressure
refers to the force of blood against aterial walls. Maiximum blood pressure is exerted on the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart pushes blood through the aortic valve into the aorta at the systole pressure. The lowest pressure present on the arterial walss is the diastolic pressure
Melatonin
Important for sleep
Factors affecting Respirations rate and depth
Exercise
Medications
trauma, infection, pain
heart disease
Emotions
Pulse assessment
Pulse assessment may be assessed by palpating peripheral arteries or by auscultating the apical pulse with a stephoscope ( 1 minute for apical pulse)
Sites for accessing pulse
peripherally or apically
Stephascope
Big diaphragm
picks up high pitch sounds
Stephascope
Bell
Measures at atrium
picks up low pitch sounds
Pt with fever may have :
dehydration
decreased urinary output
rapid heart beat
while pt on 02
no oral temps!
LUB sound
mitral valve
DUB sound
AV valve closing
PMI
normal pulse sensations - apical impulse (still called -Point of Maximum Impulse by some physicians)