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48 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of emotion?
A response to environmental stimuli that create an intense but short term affective state
What feelings can be included in this short term affective state?
-Arousal
-Pleasure
-Displeasure
What do emotions often lead to?
Behavior that is expressive, goal directed, and adaptive.
What was the predominant sensory component in ancestral brains?
Vision - when a frog saw a fly it ate it.
What sensory component was added to mammals when active at night?
Smell
What happened in the jurassic period?
The mammalian brain invested heavily in aroma circuits to succeed as reptiles slept.
What did this sense of smell establish?
What was to become the limbic cortex.
What are the 2 components of emotion?
-Sensory
-Motor/endocrine
How is emotion related to illness?
Illness induces emotion
Emotion induces illness
What is the basis of sensory coding?
Labeled line coding
What is one of the leading integrative frameworks for understanding emotion modeled after?
The color vision system
How many types of receptors in color vision?
3 (sml the bgr)
When one pigment is lost in color blindness, how many colors are lost?
2
When one emotion center is lost how many emotions lost?
2
What are emotions a mammalian elaboration of?
Vertebrate arousal patterns
What happens in vertebrate arousal patterns?
Neurochemicals (DA, NE, Serotonin) step up or step down the brain's activity level
How is the brain's activity level visible?
As body movements, gestures, and postures.
What was life like before the mammalian brain?
-Automatic
-Preconscious
-Predictable
How did reptilian motor centers react to vision and other sensory cues?
With preset body movements and programmed postures.
What happened with the arrival of night-active mammals?
Smell replaced sight as the dominant sense.
Why did the mammalian brain invest so heavily in aroma circuits during the Jurassic period?
To succeed at night while the reptiles slept!
Why were these odor pathways important?
They formed the neural blueprint for what would become our limbic brain.
Who came up with the integrative framework for understanding emotions?
Robert Plutchik
What is Plutchik's Theory of Emotion?
All emotion can be classified into 4 opposing pairs of basic emotions or their combinations.
What is Plutchik's solid?
A representation of the 8 basic emotions and their dimensions.
What are 2 main dimensions of emotion?
-Intensity (fear vs terror)
-Polarity (grief vs ecstasy)
What are the 4 pairs of emotions?
1. Fear/anger
2. Surprise/anticipation
3. Sadness/joy
4. Disgust/acceptance
Fear + Surprise =
Awe
Surprise + Sadness =
Disappointment
Sadness + Disgust =
Remorse
Anger + Anticipation =
Aggression
Love/Anger/Fear =
Jealousy
Anticipation + Joy =
Optimism
Disgust + Anger =
Contempt
Acceptance + Fear =
Submission
Joy + Acceptance =
Love
What does each emotion produce in a person in response to a stimulus event? Why?
A specific pattern of behavior and arousal - to enhance survival.
What primeval arousal center originated in fishes and is central to emotional expression in men?
The amygdala
How does the amygdala function in general?
-Recieves multisensory input
-Integrates it
-Sends output to motor, ANS, and neuroendocrine areas of the CNS
Where does the Amygdala recieve input from?
-Sensory thalamus
-Hippocampus
-Reticular activating system
-Entorhinal cortex
-Polyodal sensory areas -Sensory association areas
How many nuclei make up the amygdala?
About 10 distinct nuclei
How are autonomic expressions of emotional states mediated by the amygdala?
Through its connections with the hypothalamus via Stria terminalis
By what projection to what 2 areas does the amygdala influence Conscious Feeling?
Via the Amygdalofugal pathway - 1. To the cingulate gyrus
2. To the Orbitofrontal cortex
What is the feedback circuit for emotion?
1. Trigger
2. Emotional response
3. Behavior
Most of the time how is our emotional experience influenced?
By thought
How can thinking affect our emotions and behavioral response?
We can process our feelings and DECIDE on a responsive course of action.
What is it called when we become INTENSELY triggered and our responses are out of control?
Emotional hijacking
What is the advantage of oppenency and feedback of emotions?
We can control emotions by stimulating the opposite when one is viewed as negative.