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96 Cards in this Set

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Surface Water
all water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, seas, estuaries) usually suitable for agriculture/industrial/recreational with no or limited treatment; if used as drinking water very strict regulations
Groundwater
supply of fresh water found beneath the earth's surface, usually in aquifers which supplies wells and springs; considered high wuality resource bc water is cleaned by physical. chemical and microbiological processes in the soil
GWUDI
Ground Water under the direct influence of surface water
any water beneath the surface of the ground with
1. significant occurrence of insects or other microorganisms, algea, or pathogens
2. significant and relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics such as turbidity, temp, or pH which closely correlate to surface water conditions
How can water be a source of disease?
Chemical- nitrate, flouride, arsenics, pesticides, POPs
Biological- bacteris, viruses, protozoa; cholera, typhoid, rotavirus, E. coli
Ways to purify water
-sedimentation- remove large solids, slow water down and let things settle
-coagulation- add chemicals (alum) to water to speed up sedimentation (clumps particles together)
-filtration- slow sand filtration (bacteria in sand filtrates it)
-disinfection- clorination or UV radiation
General Sources of pollution in US rivers?
irrigation, development, pesticides, fecal matter, deforesation
Hydrologic cycle
water is in a continuous motion between locations; evaporation from the ocean, precipitation on land, and runoff back to ocean
Surface Water
all water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, seas, estuaries)
-we drink surface wtare
Groundwater
supply of fresh water found beneath Earth's surface, usually in aquifers, which supply wells and springs, considered high quality resource
Aquifer
resource well (natural or man-made) Ogallala aquifer provides water for irrigation
Protozoa
single cell biological contaminant
ex, cryptosporidium, giardia
Cross Contamination
where fresh water mixes with sewage; happens with leaks, suctioning/siphonage froms pipes caused by low pressure in pipes
Point source
a staitonary location or fixed facility from which pollutants are discharged; any single identifiable source of pollution; pipe, ditch, factory
Non-Point Source
no single point of origin
ex runoff, from agriculture, urband streets, mining, dams, usually carried off by storm water
Aproximate global burden of disease due to water
just diarrheal- 4.1% of total DALY (disability-adjusted life years)
-1.8 million deaths per year
What are disinfection by-products? How do they form? How are they minimized?
DBPs = when (chlorine) compounds react with naturally occurring organic matter ex tri
Safe Water Drinking Act 1974
-mandated that EPA regulate those contaminants in drinking water that might pose a risk to human health
-sets permissable levels of contaminants in drinking water provided by public drinking water utlities
-2 benchmarks, one in ideal health goals and one on feasibility; MaximumContaminant Level Goal- level below there is no expected risk; Maximum Contaminant Levels- legal limits
Septic Tank
sewage treatment used more in rural areas/personal property
-a tank that holds sludge and the liquid component seeps into the soil(has to be a certain distance from drinking water source)
Primary muncipal sewage treatment
sludge removal process
-SD does this and emits into ocean
Secondary muncipal sewage treatment
bacteria and liquid layers interact so that nitrates and phosphates are all that's left
-reduce to 90% of biological demand
San Diego Water: Where does it come from? where does it go? how is it treated?
-comes from Colorado River
-primary sewage treatment
-sewage goes to Point Loma, then liquid sewage is sent through pipes out to sea and solid waste goes to landfill to cover up trash
Why is arsenic in drinking water? What are adverse health effects?
in Bangladesh tube wells were established to provide "clean water" to avoid surface water that was contaminated, but water became contaminated from aquifers
-skin lesions, cancer, harms nervous system, birth defects,
What was Milwaukee outbreak? How many people were affected?
cryptosporidiosis-a water borne disease linked to exceptionally heavy rainfall and flooding
-largest waterborne outbreak in US, affected 400,000 became sick, > 50 died
What are concerns with reuse of waste water?
-psychological ideas of reusing sewage water
-gray water; bath and shower waer may contain potential pathogens
-expensive treatment
Vector
insect or any living carrier that transports an infectious agent from an infected individual or its wastes to a susceptible individual
Zoonoses
an infection or infectious disease transmissable under natural conditions from vertabrate animals to man
ex rabies and plague
Mechanical Transmission
transport og th einfectious agent between hosts by arthropod vectors with contaminated mouthparts, antennae, or limbs. There is no multiplication of th einfectious agent in the vector.
Biological transmission
transmission of infectious agent to susceptible host by bite of blood-feeding arthropod vectore as in malaria, or by other inoculation
Disease associated with Mosquitos, fleas, lice, flies, ticks and rodents
Mosquitos- encephalitis, malaria, yellow fever,
Fleas- plague, cat flea typhus
Lice- typhus, relapsing fever
Flies- oroya fever, leishmaniasis
Ticks- lyme disease,
Rodents- hantavirus, arenavirus
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)
-virus
-from mice
-via urine, droppings, or saliva
-inhaled, aerosolized virus
-rodent control in homes
Plague
-vector = fleas
-type = bacteria
-reservoir = wild rodents
control- education, avoidance of wild rodents, personla
-protective mesaure = prevent contact between pets and rodents, flea control
Lyme Disease
vector = deer tick
disease- sporadic bacteria
reservoir= dogs, deer, humans, animals
Control = personal protective measures, vegetation managment, tick removal
Malaria
vector = anopheles mosquito
Disease = protozoa
reservoir = human
control = education, vector control, personal protection, source reduction
Dengue Fever
vector = aedes aegypti mosquito
disease = dengue virus
reservoir = human
control = education, personal protection, sanitation, sourse reduction
West Nile Virus
Vector = culex tarsalis
disease = encephalitis virus
reservoir = bords, humans, tree squirrels
control = education, eliminate source, dead bird surveillance, screens
# 1 vector- borne disease worldwide
# 1 vector-borne disease in USA
World = malaria

USA = west nile virus
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
techniques to maintain pest pop. below economically damaging levels while maintaining environmental quiality
- goal of using more than one tool to control pest that minimizes any risks
- ex sanitation, solid waste management
Vector Surveillance
Effective vector surveillance will quickly identify the disease and an immediate response can be made/action can be initiated to control an outbreak
Anthropophilic
Pertaining to a vector’s preference for feeding on humans even when
non-human hosts are available.
Biological transmission
Transmission of the infectious agent to susceptible host by bite of blood-feeding (arthropod) vector as in malaria, or by other inoculation, as in Schistosoma infection.
Ectoparasite
A parasite that lives on the surface of its host or at most invades the superficial skin layers.
Endemic disease
The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given
geographic area or population group; may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group.
Epizootic
An outbreak (epidemic) of disease in an animal population (often with
the implication that it may also affect human populations).
Extrinsic incubation period
Time necessary after acquisition of infection by the (arthropod) vector for the infectious agent to multiply or develop sufficiently so that it can be transmitted by the vector to a vertebrate host.
Incubation period
The time interval between invasion by an infectious agent and appearance of the first sign or symptom of the disease in question.
Reservoir of infection
Any person animal, arthropod, plant, soil, or substance, or a
combination of these, in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies, on which it depends primarily for survival, and where it reproduces itself in such a manner that it can be transmitted to a susceptible host.
Risk assessment
characterizing probability of potentially adverse health effects from human exposures to environmental hazards
Difference btw carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic dose-response curve
non-carcinogenic- response does not occur until threshold is reached
carcinogenic- no actually safe level or VSD (virtually safe dose) animal study cannot pick up a low level risk
What are the 4 steps of risl assessment?
1. hazard identification
2. dose-response determination for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic
3. Exposure assessment-(least data) estimates does/duration and amt of exposure
4. risk charcaterization- combine all 3 steps to estimate level of risk
Why are animal exposures limited in their ability to detect low level effects?
measuring the risk of small doses of a carcinogen would require testing thousands of animals to produce meaningful results.
NOAEL
No observable adverse effect level- maximum concentration of a substamce that has no adverse affect
LOAEL
lowest observed advesre effect level- lowest dose that causes adverse effects
4 areas the EPA works on for risk assessemtn
-Mechanism studies
-pharmacokinetics
-structure activity relationship analysis
-New animal models
Goals if risk communication
-info/education
-behavorial change and protective action
-disaster warning and emergency notification
-problem solving/conflict resolution
Goals of Journalists
-stories that attract
-have little background knowledge on topic
-don't conduct in deoth research
-act as watchdogs
genetics
study of indicidual/single genes
genomics
study of all genes that make up an organisms
SNP
single nucleotide polymorphism-normal variations of one letter of the genetic code
Human Genome Project
2001 completed the sequencing of human genome, complete roadmap to the location of 30,000 human genes of one person, can now sequence DNA,
Ethical issues related to genetics and genomes
workplace - can they deny employment based on disease or susceptibility
community- if we find out certain are susceptible should we protect then
Potential interventions based on genomics
1. due to resistance of antibiotics in vectors creating specific treatments based on genotype
2. if susceptibility is known invest in more personalized interventions, conduct surveillance of disease with a known genetic component
3. personalized medicine
4. can find out pathology
5. screen
Common misconseptions about public health genomics
1. confidentiality
2, misusue of info
3. right and access to genetic info
Personalized medicine
pharmacogenetics
-response of individual genes to medicine and drug response over entire genome
-can create medicine that will help majority of people with a problem, taking out non-responders and toxic responders
How can behavior change genetics?
epigentics- changes that happen to RNA that carry out instructions written into genetic code.
-effects can have damaging effects and lead to dysregulation of DNA repair gene expressions (protects us against mutagenic effects)
Radiation polonium 210
-easy to measure
-controlled by state-manufactured by nuclear reactor
-source- tobacco (sticks to leaves)
-short half life, rapid decay, small quantity is intensely active
-ingest or inhale, not via dermal
Examples of pops studied on effects of ionizing radiation
-radium girls
-hiroshima
-chernobyl
ionizing radiation
-alpha and beta-penetrate body, stopped by paper
-gamma and x-rays- stopped by lead used in medical setting
-considered the most harmful, can mutate DNA
non-ionizing radiation
-microwaves, radio waves
-uv light
-visible light/electromagnetic
-infrared radiation
-radio and TV
-doesn't hav eenough energy to knock off electrons
Which are more semsitive to ionizing radiation
undifferentiated cells (stem)
Benefits of radiation
cancer treatment, arthritis, stomach ailments
Dirty Bomb
-does not invovle nuclear chain reaction
-purpose- to instill panic, chaos, recovery, clean-up
-cause also cause economic hardship
-has potential for serious casualties
-pyscho effects and disruption most important
Radon
-groundwater, natural gas, building materials seeps through basements, lack of ventilation to mix with outside air
-Radon 222
-hazard-when it decays then it is a problem biological hazard when inhaled
-EPA can't regulate it bc don't oversee homes
What are some human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation that have a threshold?
threshold effects appear after a certain level of radiation exposure reached enough cells have been damaged to make the effect apparent.
-Somatic effects, effects on organs
What are some human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation that have no dose threshold?
Non-threshold effects occur at lower levels of radiation absorbed.
-cancer or genetic effects
What are some efforts being made to control exposure to radiation in
a. medical industry
b. in the home
c. outdoors
a. medical industry- minimal required levels of radiation used, barriers when using radiation, appropriate training and equipment
b. in home - radon detectors
c. outdoors - warning signs, setting limits on exposure
The most sensitive organ for ionizing radiation
Lungs
What cellular molecule is most critical site for radiation damage?
DNA
Highest dose of radiation in US
Natural - radon
artificial - x-ray
Effects of radiation on cell/molecule
genetic - DNA that remains unrepaired (non-threshold) so single ionizing particle can cause mutation/can also change chromosomes # and structure
-somatic - effect on body tissue
carcinogenic - tumore, similiar to chemical carcinogens
- developing embryo - increase risk of leukemia/other cancers
Major form of waste put into sanitary landfill
paper(solid waste)
transfer station
trash trucks going to a facility that dump trash and that facility puts it on a bigger truck to landfill (neighborhood trucks don't go to landfill so they can get back on street quicker)
leachate
liquid that drains from a landfill
-liners prevent this
Where is low-level radioactive waste stored?
stored at site itself
-at hospital, whoever buys it stores it
Sanitary landfill and requirements for operating it
-wat we use
-compacting of solid waste materials
-cover with soil to keep animals out
dimishes odor and manage odor and leachate
What are problems that can occur from sanitary or hazardous waste landfills?
-methan gas can cause explosion
-slough can cause mudslide
- rate of biodegration
What are problems with incineration and key factors in avoiding them?
-combustion- cans and tires have heavy carbon emissions
-disease carrying vectors, odors, air pollution
- solution - time, temperature, turbulence (TTT)
What are concerns about electronic waste?
hazardous materials like lead mercury, flame retardants
Common name for program authorized by CERCLA and its purpose
- superfund
- gave EPA the authority to clean up old hazardous waste sites
Different types of solid waste
-muncipal - items generated from homes
- special - medical/construction/asbestos/mining/agriculture
- hazardous - harmful to humans/environment
characteristics that make waste hazardous
1. look at 500 specific industrial wastes
2. ignitability- pensky martin test
3. corrosiveness- ph
4. reactivity - unstable/violent change/detonate
5. toxicity - leachate/LD50/carcinogen
What are options for management and disposal of hazardous waste?
1. Congress- resource conservation and recovery act (RCRA) required it to be tracked from cradle to grave point of generation to final disposal/treatment
2. cradle to grave- responsible for entire lifespan even if it was disposed of legally
3. monitoring shipments overseas
Ways in which people can be exposed to toxic substances in solid and hazardous waste
infectious disease, contamination of drinking water, gas migration, leachate, emissions from incinerators, contamination of food, disease vector
Current standard for arsenic? Previous standard
Current = 10 PPB
Previous = 50 PPB
Benzen and leukemia- when were risks first known?
-from gas
-has been a problem for 100 + yrs
-supreme court decision 19080-OSHA chose to reduce allowable limit from 10 to 1 ppm ambient air in workplace, Supreme court overturned, requiring OSHA to demonstrate substatial eveidence that significant risk exists
-long-term exposure to excessive levels of benzene in the air causes leukemia
Hazards can be
1. man-made- direct product, biproduct, produced dioxin
2. naturally occurring - radon, mercury, aphlatixin in PB, botulism, arsenic in groundwater
How rules/standards are made
-public process in US
- clear process- extensive lit review and open comment
- info available but slow (not very efficient)