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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Eymycota, or true fungi, comprise a phylogenetically distinct type of microorganism based on both _______ ribosomal sequencing and posession of ___________ _______ cristae
18S ribosomal sequencing
lamellar mitochondrial cristae
What are the five main groups recognized in Eumycota?
1. zygomycetes
2. ascomycetes
3. archiascomycetes
4. basidiomycetes
5. deuteromycetes
what group of Eumycota have never shown sexual reproduction stage?
Deuteromycetes
what does it mean to be a dimorphic fungi?
able to shift between molds and yeast
are fungi non-phototrophic/phototrophic eukaryotes?
non-phototrophic eukaryotes
how do fungi obtain nutrients?
osmotrophic so they obtain them through absorption
Describe some general characteristics of fungi.
Non-phototrophic
eukaryotes
osmotrophic
capable of sexual and asexual reproduction
posses rigid cell walls
sporogenic
how do fungi affect human life?
1. cause disease (mycoses) in plants, animals, and humans
2. carry out biodegradation processes in the environment
3. Serve as basic research models
4. carry out fermentative processes which have been exploited industrially for the commercial production of food, beverages, metabolites, and pharmaceuticals
describe the ecology of fungi
Saprophytic
phytopathogens
biodegradation of complex organic macromolecules to low molecular weight nutrients and inorganic molecules
True or False
Yeast are unicellular fungi
True
describe yeast general features
unicellular fungi
contain single nucleus in each cell
reproduce asexually by either budding or transverse binary fission or sexually by sporulation
may form germ tubes or pseudohyphae
colonies appear much like large bacterial colonies on agar solidified growth media
True or False
Molds are multicellular
true
describe mold general features
exits in the form of long, branches, filaments called hyphae which grow by apical extension to form tangled aggregations of mycelia
reproduction is by asexual or sexual
what does it mean to be a dimorphic fungi?
soem pathogenic fungi are capable of changing from one form to the other (YM shift) and are therefore considered to be dimorphic in nature
what are Zygomycota named for?
thick walled sexual structures
what are Ascomycota named for?
characteristically produce sac-like structures
what are Archiascomycoat named for?
contains only the genus Pneumocystis
what are Basidiomycota named for
typically produce a club shaped cell
what are deuteromycota named for?
yeast and mold which do not exhibit a sexual phase
where is growth optimal for fungi?
growth is optimal in the presence of moisture and absence of light
define saprophytic
able to obtain nutrients from nonliving organic material
how is the fungi provided with nutrition?
they are osmotrophic
expression of genes for extracellular hydrolytic enzymes which degrade organic environmental biomass and macromolecules into lower molecular weight molecules. these water soluble molecules are then actively transported across the cell membrane
True or false
Fungi are heterotrophic, chemotrophic, and organotrophic
true
what are the preferred source of carbone, energy, and electrons for fungi?
Sugar carbohydrates
what is the primary mechanism of storage for fungi?
polysaccharide glycogen
what type of respiration do most fungi use?
Obligate aerobes
what are notable species that exhibit fermentative catabolism?
facultative yeast: Saccharomyces cereviseas for bread aerobically and wine anaerobically
Obligately anaerobic rumenant fungi
what are characteristic cellular macromolecules which distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes and allow for chemotherapeutic selective toxicity?
Chitin, glucan, or related polymers comprise rigid cell wall
Major sterol components of the cell membrane: Ergosterol & Zymosterol (not cholesterol)
what is the entire fungal body referred to as?
Thallus
what type of ultrastructure do
Fungi exhibit?
Eukaryotic cellular ultrastructure
how do yeast elongate?
by forming pseudohyphae or germ tubes
what is the smallest free living eukaryotes?
Fungi
what are mold filaments referred to as?
hyphae and grow in virtue of apical elongation
Septate
cells partitioned by crosswalls
Nonseptate
coenocytic and multinucleated
what is the myceilum of a mold?
tangles hyphae comprise of biomass
what are colonies or mold referred to as?
Floccoase (cottony like)
Dematiaceous
pigmented
Hyaline
nonpigmented
what is a vegetative hyphae
surface hyphae grow on and within medium where they absorb nutrients and water
what are aerial hyphae
reproductive/fruit producing hyphae that produce and disseminate spores
Teleomorph
fungal form which produces sexual spores
Anamorph
asexual spore producing form
what is the state of fungi most often isolated from clinical specimens?
Anamorph fungi
describe general characteristics of Zygomycetes cellular morphology?
molds within limited septate, coenocytic hyphae
produce sexual zygospores
asexual sporangiospores are contained within sporangia at the end of sporangiophores with columella tips
Root like rhizoids are common
describe Ascomycetes cellular morphology?
includes both yeast and molds with septate hyphae
sexual ascspores are produced in a sac-like ascus
asexual conidia are borne on conidiophores
describe Archiascomycetes cellular morphology?
sexual and asexual yeast like trophic, sporocyst, and cyst forms
describe Basidiomycetes cellular morphology?
sexual basidiospores are borne on club-shaped basidia
desribe Deuteromycetes cellular morphology?
includes both yeast and septate molds that lack sexual phase
Conidia produced on conidiophores or by hyphal fragmentation into arthroconidia
what is involved in the reproductive stages of almost all fungi?
Sporogenesis
what does sexual reproduction involve in fungi?
sexual reproduction involves fusion of compatible mating types (to include nuclei), mitosis, and meiosis
what does asexual reproduction of fungi include?
Mitosis only