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96 Cards in this Set

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What gets integrated in the LIMBIC SYSTEM?
Cortical info and Hypothalamic Impulses
What does limbus mean? Who gave that name to the limbic system?
Border - between the new (neocortex) and old (brainstem) brain. Broca
Who came up with the limbic circuit's being associated with emotion?
Papez
What type of input does the limbic cortex receive?
Multisensory
In the hierarchical setup of the limbic system what's at the bottom?
Primary sensory and motor areas
What are the 4 levels of the limbic system hierarchy in ascending order?
1. Primary sensory/motor areas
2. Modality-specific association areas
3. Higher order association areas
4. Limbic areas
What happens in general to visual sensation when there is damage to the limbic system?
Too much or not enough emotional input is associated with the vision.
What were the 5 steps in the Papez circuit? What was missing?
1. Cingulate gyrus/perf pathwy
2. Hippocampus
3. Fornix
4. Mammillary bodies
5. Anterior Thalamus
(back to cingulate)
-Missing the amygdala
What did McLean add to Papez's circuit?
-The amygdala
-Prefrontal cortex
-Nucleus accumbens
-Septal areas
What virus has special affinity for limbic regions? What symptoms result?
-Herpes
-Severe memory and behavioral disturbances
What is the limbic system susceptible to?
Kindling and development of seizure foci
What receptors and innervation allow the limbic system to be involved in memory and pain/pleasure perception?
-Opiate receptors
-Cholinergic innervation
Where does Herpes encephalitis cause most significant swelling and hemorrhage?
In the right temporal lobe
What nuclei provide the cholinergic input for the brain?
-Septal nuclei
-Nucleus Basalis
What are limbic structures interposed between?
The hypothalamus and neocortex
What makes up the outer core of the limbic system?
Cortical structures
What 3 cortical structures make up the outer core?
-Cingulate cortex
-Orbital frontal lobe
-Temporal lobe
what are the 2 parts of the Cingulate cortex? What is each responsible for?
Rostral - emotions/motor
Caudal - Visual spatial / memory
What is the Orbital Frontal part of the outer limbic core responsible for?
-Personality
-Behavioral control
-Self awareness
What are the 3 important structures in the temporal lobe? What are they responsible for?
-Hippocampus
-Parahippocampus
-Entorhinal cortex
MEMORY
What makes up the inner core of the limbic system?
Subcortical structures
What 5 important structures make up the inner core:
-Hypothalamus
-Septal nuclei
-Mammillary body
-Amygdala
-Anterior Nu: of Thalamus
What 3 things are coordinated by the hypothalamus?
-Pleasure center
-Autonomic
-Endocrine integration
What are 5 things controlled by the amygdala?
-Self Preservation
-Social behavior
-Aggression/defense
-Sex
-Affective significance of visual stimuli
What will happen if you damage a monkey's amygdala?
It won't be afraid of anything
What is the septum responsible for?
-Preservation of species behaviors
-sexual behaviors
-emotionality
What are most anatomical connections in the limbic system?
Reciprocal
Fornix: connects what to what
Hippocampus to septum and mammillary bodies
What does the mammillothalamic tract connect?
Mammillary bodies to anterior nucleus of the thalamus
What does Stria terminalis connect?
What does the perforant path connect?
Stria: Amygdala with septum

Perforant path: enterhinal cortex to dentate gyrus
Why is the Perforant path important?
It is the major afferent to the Hippocampal formation.
4 things connected by the cingulum:
-Cingulate gyrus
-Entorhinal cortex (then perfp)
-Hippocampus
-Subiculum (output)
What does the Medial forebrain bundle connect?
-Hypothalamus, septal areas, amygdala, and hippocampus
to
-Midbrain ventral tegmentum VTA
What causes kluver bucy syndrome?
Bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes - esp the amygdala.
5 main symptoms of Kluver Bucy:
-Psychic blindness
-Hypermetamorphosis
-Hypersexuality
-Oral tendencies
-Tameness
P.H. you're HOT
What is hypermetamorphosis?
Attention/reaction to every visual stimulus w/in the visual field and subsequent compulsive handling of the object
What is placidity?
Flat affect; lack of aggression, no fear.
What is visual agnosia?
Loss of recognition of simple familiar objects (faces, utensils)
What syndrome is the opposite of Kluver bucy?
Geschwind syndrome - Interictal Personality
What type of syndrome is
-kluver bucy
-geschwind
KB = disconnection
Geschwind = hyperconnection
Where Kluver Bucy has lack of emotion, Geschwind has
too much
What types of symptoms will be seen in Geschwind syndrome?
-Increased philosophical cosmic or religious concern
-Altered sexual behavior (want less sex)
-Hypergraphia
-Viscosity
When scientists implanted electrodes in these regions of a rat, it would forgo food/water and everything else in preference of stimulation:
-Lateral Hypothalamus
-Medial forebrain bundle connecting the hypothalamus and septal areas
What is important in effective self-stimulation of pleasure?
Catecholamines and Dopaminergic systems
What are the 3 most important brain pleasure regions?
1. Lateral hypothalamus
2. Medial forebrain bundle
3. Nucleus accumbens
Stimulation OR lesion of what area results in pain/rage or strong aversive reactions and hyperemotionality?
Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus
Lesions of what area cause tameness and reduced emotionality?
Amygdala
Why is the Amygdala important in producing emotion?
-It attributes affective significance to visual stimuli
-Integrates emotions & memory
What results from lesions to the amygdala?
Kluver bucy syndrome
Social isolation
What will abolish hypersexuality induced by amygdalar lesions??
Lesions to the Septal region - it achieves positive control of sexuality.
Where amygdalar lesions produce a reduction in social contacts, Septal lesions result in:
Enhancement of social contacts
What behaviors do tumors in the septal region result in?
RAGE-like attacks
Increased irritibility
What is declarative memory?
Memory of facts and events
What 3 areas are required for declarative memory?
-Hippocampus
-Dorsal medial nu of thalamus
-Mammillary bodies
What do lesions of the Hippocampus, Dorsal medial nu: of thalamus, or mammillaries lead to?
Amnestic states
What are the 2 main types of declarative memory?
-Episodic
-Semantic
What is episodic memory?
Memory of personal events in one's life
What is semantic memory?
Memory of impersonal facts
What are the 3 things that make up the hippocampal formation?
-Hippocampus
-Dentate gyrus
-Subiculum
What has extensive interconnections with the hippocampus and amygdala?
Neocortex
What is the major efferent from the hippocampal formation?
Fornix
What is the major afferent going into the hippocampus?
Perforant path
What makes a sort of interlocking "c" with the hippocampal formation?
Entorhinal cortex
What perforates the dentate gyrus to get into the hippocampal formation?
The entorhinal cortex via the perforant pathway.
With what cell type do neurons from the entorhinal cortex synapse in the dentate gyrus?
Granule cells
What do the granule cells synapse with?
Hippocampal pyramidal cells
Where do the hippocampal pyramidal cells extend towards and what do they become?
Toward the lateral ventricle; become the alveus, fimbria, then fornix.
Why does the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle become enlarged after a bilateral temporal lobectomy?
Because the hippocampal formation atrophies!
What famous person had a bilateral temporal lobectomy?
HM
What happened to HM?
His procedural memory got better but he could not lay down any new memories.
What are the 2 things that cause Wernicke Korsakoff's Syndrome?
-Chronic alcoholism
-Vit B deficiency
Which vit B is deficient in Wernicke Korsakoff's?
Thiamine
What is the acute state of Wernicke Korsakoff's?
Wernicke's encephalopathy
What are the 4 symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy?
CODA:
-Confusion
-Oculomotor dysfunction
-Disorientation
-Ataxia
Where are the lesions that develop in Wernicke Korsakoff's?
In the mammillary bodies and thalamus
What is the cingulate divide into?
-Anterior/rostral
-Posterior/caudal
What 2 things are associated with the Anterior cingulate?
-Emotion
-Motor functions
What is the Posterior cingulate associated with?
-Visuospatial function
-Memory function
What results in general from cingulate damage?
Contralateral motor neglect
What does motor neglect mean?
You can see the space but you're not motivated to move there.
What does cingulotomy treat?
OCD
What can cingulotomy help with?
Chronic pain
What abnormalities are associated with the cingulate gyrus?
-Sociopathy
-Akinetic mutism
What is akinetic mutism?
Lack of motivation to speak or move
Why is Tourette's syndrome postulated to be associated with the anterior cingulate?
Because it plays a role in Affective Vocalizations
What happens to the anterior cingulate in tourette's patients?
It has decreased cerebral glucose utilization - in both the AC and insula
What relieves tourette's syndrome symptoms?
Disconnection of the AC from the thalamus.
So what in general is the anterior cingulate's function?
Integration of thought, motivation, and emotion with MOVEMENT
What happens when emotional signals in the ant cingulate are excessively amplified?
-Anxiety
-OCD
What happens when MOTOR behaviors are excessively amplified in the ant cingulate?
-Tics
-Impulsive behaviors
What happens when there is excessive FILTERING of both motor behaviors and emotions?
-Apathy
-Akinesis
-Mutism
What are the 3 frontal lobe syndromes associated with the limbic system?
-Orbital frontal syndrome
-Frontal convexity/dorsolateral
-Medial frontal
Which frontal lobe lesion causes gluttony, careless dressing, tactlessness, etc?
Orbital frontal
Which frontal lobe lesion causes apathy, slowness, little initiative, lack of expression?
Dorsolateral/frontal convexity
What results from medial frontal syndrome?
Akinetic mutism
What happened when the railroad tie when through phineas gage's frontal lobe?
Profound changes in his personality and behaviors.