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11 Cards in this Set

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What exactly does acetylation do to histones?
Neutralizes the pos charge of lys residues on the histone tails - reduces their condensed state.
Where exactly on DNA does methylation occur?
On the 5 position of CYTOSINE RESIDUES.
How does methylation affect DNA?
Allows for recognition of Binding Proteins - turns down expression/transcription.
What type of methylation corresponds with cancer?
Hypomethylation.
What is the role of signal transduction pathways in gene expression?
Gene expression is regulated in response to environmental cues.
What is the advantage of environmental signals turning on these pathways?
It allows for diverse cell type signal specificity.
How are signalling pathways classified?
Based on the major intracellular signalling molecule involved.
What 3 examples of signal transduction did we focus on?
1. Steroid receptor signalling
2. G-protein linked signalling
3. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling
Which signalling pathway is the outlier that doesn't use an intracellular signaling molecule?
Steroids - they are liphophilic.
How exactly do steroid hormones work?
1. They slip through the cell membrane and bind intracellular receptors;
2. After translocation into the nucleus, they bind (w/out receptor) DNA, act as txn factors, and activate txn.
Give examples of steroid signalling molecules:
-Thyroxine
-Vitamin D
-Retinoic acid
-Steroid hormones
-Sex hormones