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45 Cards in this Set

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Staphylococcal Wound Infections Causative Agent
Staph aureus
-Coagulase
-Clumping
-Protein A
-alpha toxin
-Penicillin resistant
Staphylococcal Wound Infections Causative Agent
S. epidermidis
-Bacteria have little or no invasive ability
-Maintained on skin surface
-Introduced into body from wound
-Example: surgical incision
Staphylococcal Wound Infections
Prevention
Prevention of infection is directed at:
-Cleansing wound
-Removing dirt and crushed tissue
-Prompt closure
-Pre-surgical antistaphylococcal medication
Surgical wound infections reduced by half
Staphylococcal Wound Infections
Treatment
-Resistant to penicillins and vanomycin
Group A Streptococcal Infections
-Flesh Eaters
Group A Staphylococcal Infections Causative Agent
S. pyogenes
-B hemolytic
-Gram (+)
Exotoxins A and B responsible for virulence
-easily treated
Group A Staphylococcal Infections
Epidemiology
-Flesh eating
-9,000 cases in 2002
Group A Staphylococcal Infections
prevention and Treatment
-No prevention
-Urgent surgery required
-Penicillin is an effective treatment
-Must be given early
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections
Causative Agent
P. aeruginosa
-Gram (-)
-Faculative anaerobe
-Flagellated
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections
Pathogenesis
-Tissue Damafe
-Prevention of healing
-Septic Shock
Produce enzymes and toxins (Exoenzyme S, Toxin A, Phospholipase C)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections Epidemiology
-Widespread in nature
-Introduced in hospitals on shoes, plants, produce
-Persist dampness
-Contaminates soaps, ointments, eye drops, swimming pools
Tetanus
-Lockjaw
-Frequently fatal
Bacterial spores
Tetanus Symptoms
Early Symptoms
-Restlessness
-Irritability
-Difficulty swallowing
-Contraction of jaw muscle

Late Symptoms
-Pain
-Difficulty breathing
-Death
Tetanus Causative Agent
Clostridium tetani
-Anaerobic
-Gram (+)
-Rod shaped
-Spore former
Swarming growth
Tetanus Pathogenesis
-Contained to wound
-Bacteria produce toxin
-Tetanospasmin
-Blocks inhibition of motor neurons, causing paralysis
Tetanus Epidemiology
-Found in dirt, dust, and human GI tract
-Half of infections are from puncture wounds
- 30-60 US cases/year
-Immunization works
Tetanus Prevention/Treatment
-Immunization is best prevention
-Inactivated tetanospasmin

Treatment:
-Thoroughly clean wound
-Antimicrobial
-Metronidazole
-Antitoxin
Clostridial Myonecrosis (gas gangrene)
-Primary disease of wartime
-Endospores of causative bacillus are innumerable
Clostridial Myonecrosis Symptoms
-Begin abruptly
-Rapidly increasing pain
-Increased swelling
-Thin, bloody fluid leaks from wound
-Skin is stretched with black spots
-Patient is ill but alert
Clostridial Myonecrosis Causative Agent
C. perfringens
-Encapsulated
-Gram (+) bacillus
Clostridial Myonecrosis Pathogenesis
-Bacteria is a toxin producer
-alpha toxins
-attack host membrane
-Bacteria unable to grow in healthy tissue
-Bacteria produces gas through fermentation
Clostridial Myonecrosis Epidemiology
-Bacteria found in feces
-Present in vaginal tract
-Gas gangrene of uteris
Clostridial Myonecrosis Prevention/Treatment
Prevention:
-No vaccine
-Prompt cleaning of wound
-Surgical removal of dead tissue

Treatment:
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment
-Penicillin to halt growth
-Amputation
Actinomycosis Causative Agent
Actinomyces israelii
-Gram (+)
-Filamentous
-Branching
-Anaerobic
-Slow growing
Actinomycosis Pathogenesis
-Can't penetrate healthy mucosa
-Infection characterized by cycles
-Progresses to skin and bones and CNS
-Grow as dense yellow colonies
-50% of cases originate in mouth
Actinomycosis
Epidemiology
-Can be found in normal flora
-Sporadic and non-communicable
Pasteurella multocida
-Responsible for bite infections from animals and humans
-More common than rabies
Pasteurella multocida Causative Agent
Pasteurella multocida
-Gram (-)
-Facultative anaerobe
-Coccobacillus
Pasteurella multocida Pathogenesis
-Some strains produce toxins
-Capsules resist phagocytosis
Cat Scratch Disease
-Begins within a week of scratch or bite
-Development of pus-filled pimple
-Painful enlargement of lymph nodes
-Fever
Cat Scratch Disease Causative
Bartonella henselae
-Gram (-)
-Curved bacillus
Cat Scratch Disease Pathogenesis
-Enters body through scratch bite
-Carried to lymph nodes
-Complications arise in immunocompromised
Cat Scratch Disease Prevention/Disease
Prevention:
-No prevention methods
-Avoid handling stray cats
-Clean wound

Treatment:
-Ampicillin
-Some streams are resistant
Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever Symptoms
-Chills, fever, head, muscle ache, vomiting 2 to 10 days after wound heals
-Rash followed by joint pain
Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever Causative Agent
Streptobacillus moniliformis
-Gram (-)
-Facultative anaerobe
-Rod shaped
-Some are L-forms
Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever Pathogenesis
Enters body through scratch or bite
-Enters bloodstream
-Majority of cases are self-limiting
-Some cause brain abscesses
-7-10% of untreated cases are fatal
Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever Prevention/Treatment
-Rat control and care in handling

Treatment:
-Penicillin for treatment
-Given intravenously
Human Bite Symptoms
-Painful with massive swelling
-Pus discharge
-Most are on exterior of hand
Human Bite Pathogenesis
-Anaerobic conditions for infection
-Mouth flora are usually harmless
-Encapsulated flora resist phagocytosis
-Facultative bacteria reduce available oxygen
Human Bite Prevention/treatment
Prevention:
-Avoid altercations
-Prompt cleaning
-Antiseptic

Treatment:
-Opening wound
-Washing with sterile fluid (saline)
-Removal of dirt and dead skin
-Antibacterial
Sporotrichosis
-Rose gardener's disease
-Worldwide
-Associated with puncture wound from vegetation
-Sporadic
Sporotrichosis Symptoms
-Hand or arm primary site of involvement
-Trunk, legs and face can also be infected
-Chronic ulceration occurs at site of wound
-Development of ulcerating nodules
-Develop sequentially towards center of body
-Lymph node enlargement
-Healthy individuals rarely become ill
-Can be life threatening to immunocompromised
Sporotrichosis Causative Agent
Sporothric schenckii
-Dimorphic fungus
-Lives in oil and on vegetation
Sporotrichosis Pathogenesis
-Spores are inroduced via injury
-1-3 week incubation
-Small nodules form
-Ulceration causes skin bleeding
-In healthy persons, disease doesnt get past lymph node
Sporotrichosis Prevention/Treatment
-Protective clothing
-Often misdiagnosed
-Usually cured with oral potassium iodide
-Itroconazole and amphotericin B are used in rare cases