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36 Cards in this Set

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Aerobic Threshold
VO2 & LT -> indicates capacirty for endurance
Anerobic Threshold
(lactate) - the point at which latic acid produced in muscles begins to accumulate in the blood.
Factors that influence aerobic fitness
1) Age
2) Body Composition
3) Activity
4) Gender
5) Training
6) Heredity
Endocrine System
all the hormones and glands
Nervous System
increases effeciency of movement & improved effeciency of the cardiovascular system
Basic pattern to all cardiovascular training programs
Day 1: easy distance RPE = 12-13
Day 2: pace RPE = 15
Day 3: hills/stairs RPE 13-14
Day 4: Intervals RPE = 15-16
Day 5: Overdistance RPE = 11
Day 6: Variety of alternate activity
Day 7: rest or light activity
4 temperature regulating mechanisms in the human body
1) regulating centre in the hypothalamus
2) heat & cold receptors in skin,
sense environmental change
3) change regulators i.e. shivering
4) neurons system
Influence the bodies response to heat
1) gender
2) other -i.e. alcohol
3) sweat glands
4)physical fitness
5) body fat
Factors needed prior to initiating or prescribing a muscular strength.
1) determine the requrements for specific sport
2) identify major muscle groups and movements involved
3) select exercises to develop muscle fitness in upper body, trunk, & leg muscles.
Rest Sets
Strength
3-6 sets 4-8 reps 90-120 secs

Power
3-4 sets 12-25 reps full recovery

Endurance
2-3 sets 8-12 reps 44-60 secs
6 Factors that effect flexibility
1) Joint structure
2) Age & sex
3) Muscle bulk
4) Weight training
5) Activity level
6) Connective tissue
FITT
F-frequency) - 3-7 times per week
I - (intensity) - 10% beyond normal muscle length (to point of stretching)
T - (time) - 15-60 seconds - 1-3 sets
T - (Type) - static, balistic & PNF
3 specific changes that take place in muscles following training
1) recruitment of muscles
2) type of motor unit
3) size of motor unit
Muscular Adaptaions
Strength

Endurance
Strength
^ in contractile protiens
^ # of fibres
Endurance
^ aerobic enzymes, mitochondrial density, capillaries
possible changes in fibre types
Glycemic Index
the magnitude of the increase in blood glucose that occurs after the ingestion of food
High GI
*increases insulin level -> increases metabolism of CHO & reduce fat use
*detremental all the time
*beneficial at certain times of ingestion
Low GI
*slower release in blood stream -> longer lasting energy -> decrease insulin spike
*beneficial all the time'
*not as beneficial in post ecercise
Saturated
*animal sources
*solid at room temp.
*non-essential
*made in body
Polyunsaturated
*Linoleic Acid
*Alpha-linoleic Acid
*must come from diet as EFA's
*important for cell membrane health
*body processes and regulates cholesterol metabolism
Fat is needed
Linoleic Acid shows
1) increase in immune function
2) enhances uptake of fatty acids into muscles for oxidation
3) reduces catabolism
4) increases lean mass
5) deacreases body fat
Electrolytes
marathon/long duration -> drink cool, solutions low in glucose
short duration -> high glucose during exercise
Energy Balance
Total Daily Energy intake - Total Energy Expenditure
Total Daily Energy Expenditure
TEF+EPA+REE

TEF-> thermic effect of food
EPA -> energy of physical acctivity
7 causes of Obesity
Gender
Fat cells
Activity
Dieting
Heredity
Psychological
Metabolic rate
Stages of Change
1) precontemplative
- no desire to change
2) Contemplative
- with in 6 months, aware of prob.
3) Action
- actively engaged in changed behav.
4) Maintenance
Trans-theoritical Model
judge the persons readiness for change, and base an exercise program off of that inorder for them to be ready to follow through.
Why do Muscles Fatigue
1) ATP is not present in sufficient amounts
2) toxic procucts accumulate in
trained athletes - buffer lactic acids & hydrogen ions
-anaerobic training can decelop tolerance
6 Essential classes of nutrients
Carbs
Protein
Fiber
Fat
Vitamins/minerals
Water
PNF Stretching
1)hold relax
2) contract relax
3) hold relax w/ aganist contraction
Types of Stretching
1) static stretching (on your own, no movement)
2) Balistic
3) Dynamic
Training Effects
Muscles : muscle is prim. taget for training
^ product of enzymes
^ ability to use fat as energy
^ size of muscles fibres
Respriatory:
^ effeciency and endurance of breathing
decrease residual volume
Carbohydrates
Mono -> fructose, glucose or galactose
Di-> combinations of monos
Poly-> sucralose (galactose & glucose)
Starches -> a) amylose
b) amylopectin
3 Training Priciples
Overload-> muster experience load, not accustom to
Specificty -> stregth specific to method
Progression -> constant & new ending imporvemnt
Training Effects: Cadiovascular System
- ^ blood volume
- ^ stoke volume
SV * Heart Rate