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189 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what happens in a lymphoid follicle germinal center?
B-cell proliferation during immune response: isotype switching
where does Ig class switching occur?
germinal centers of lymph nodes
what growth medium for c. diphtheriae?
tellurite plate, loffler's medium; "TELL your InTErn not to LOFF around!"
what bug grows on bile and saline agar?
enteroccoci -- differentiates it from nonenterococcal gropu d strep (can't grow in saline)
monospot test
agglutination with sheep erythrocytes; positive = EBV, negative = CMV (mononucleosis)
what factors does HIB need to grow?
X (hematin) and V (NAD); NAD can beprovided by s.aureu on normal sheep blood agar)
Most common bacterial causes of acute otitis media, sinusitis, AND bacterial conjunctivitis in childhood
1. STREP PNEUMO; 2) nontypable HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; 3) MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS (Hib vax doesnt affect nontyptable h.influenzae)
most common causes of acute bronchitis
almost alwyas viral (influenza A/B, coronavirus, RSV)
Hib vs nontypable h.influenza
Hib causes: meninigitis, pneumonia, sepsis, epiglottitis; H.influ nontypable causes: otitis media, sinusitis, bacterial conjunctivitis
congenital toxo sx
TRIAD: 1) hydrocephalus; 2) intracranial calcifications; 3) chroioretinitis; also have hepatosplenomegaly, rash, neuro abnormlaitis (seizures, muscle tone, ocular mvmt defects)
what are staph's two "shields?"
1) PROTEIN A: binds Fc portion of IgG at complement-binding site ==> prevents activation of complement; 2) COAGULASE creates fibring wall?
what's unique about s.bovis endocarditisa/?
occurs in pts WITHOUT preexisting valvular abnormality
what fungus in leukemia patients undergoing immmunosuppression tx? what form? what tx?
mucormycosis (mucor, rhizospus, absidia); broad, nonseptate hyphae (mold), wide branching angle; tx w/ debridement + amphotericin B
tastroenteritis acquired from domestic animals / contaminated food
what bug makes lecithinase, what's it called, what does it do?
c. perfringens -- alpha toxin; toxin destorys RBCs, WBCs, platelets, etc., ==> responsible for rapid tissue necrosis (gas gangrene)
inheritence of CGD
what does TSST-1 do?
produced by s.aureus, superantigens; crosslink MHC II on APCs with TCR on T-cells ==> nonspecific t-cell activation ==> IL-2, from t-cells, IL-1/TNF from macrophages ==> systemic shock, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, erythroderma, etc. specifically, desquamation on palms/soles 1-2wks after onset
what cells contain a TB infection?
CD$+ Th1 cells + macrophages ==> caseating granuloma
classic clinical presentation of s.typhi (typhoid fever)
organisms phagocytosed by M cells in gut, replicate there ==> initial abdomoinal cramping, low fever, diarrhea/constipation; ==> slamon-colored "rose spots" on abdomen, hepatosplenomegaly, hemorrhagic diarrhea/sepsis
tx of cryptococcal meningitis
amphotericin B +- flucytosine (in HIV + pts); fluconazole maintenance tx for HIV+ pts also (for life)
which exotoxins inactivate EF-2 via ribosylation?
C.diphtheriae: diphtheria toxin; pseudomonas: exotoxoin A
what does calymmatobacterium inguinale cause?
granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) --> lymphatic obstruction --> elephantitasis
STD w/ swollen, painful lymph nodes
what component of G+ cell membrane/wall induces TNFa/IL1?
teichoic acid (Lipid A does for G-)
which bug has a non-polysaccharide capsule?
b.anthracis -- D-glutamate
exceptions to G- == endotoxin rule
LISTERIA: G+ with endotoxin; BACTERIOIDES: G- without endotoxin
heat tolerance of exo vs endo toxin
endotoxin: STABLE at 100'C for 1 hr; exotoxin: RAPIDLY DESTROYED at 60'C (except staph enterotoxin)
name the ADP ribosylating AB toxins
cAMP INDUCERS: ETEC (LT --> Gs), V.CHOLERA (choleratoxin --> Gs), B.PERTUSSIS (pertussis toxin --| Gi); EF-2 INHIBITORS: C.DIPHTHERIA, PSEUDOMONAS; both --| EF-2 (responsible for protein synthesis)
what does endotoxin activate? (3)
1) MACROPHAGES: IL-1, TNF, NO; 2) COMPLEMENT (alternate pathway): C3a, C5a; 3) HAGEMAN FACTOR (XII): coagulation cascade --> DIC
which bugs cant be visualized on gram stain?
intracellular: RICKETTSIA, CHLAMYDIA, LEGIONELLA (mostly intracell); too thin: TREPONEMA; no cell wall: MYCOPLASMA; high lipid content: MYCOBACTERIA
which bugs make colored pigment (3)
s.aureus (yellow, aureus = gold); pseudomonas (blue-green); serratia (red)
which bugs have IgA protease? What does this mean?
Neisseria (M + G), Hib, S.pneumo; allows colonization of mucosal surfaces
which bugs have urease?
PUNCH (proteus, ureaplasma, nocardia, cryptococcus, h.pylori)
what are different factors that lend antiphagocytic capabilities, and which bugs have them?
1) CAPSULES (many bugs); 2) M-PROTEIN (S. pyogenes -- grp A strep); 3) A PROTEIN (S.aureus); 4) PILI (n.gonorrhea)
which category of bugs are catalase negative?
which bugs have coagulase?
s.aureus, yersenia pestis (plague)
name the G- "coccoid" rods and their "special powers" (6)
(1) respiratory: HIB (factors V and X), LEGIONELLA (charcoal yeast + Fe + cysteine), B.PERTUSSIS (bordet-gengou potato medium); (2) zoonotic '-ellas': BRUCELLA (diary; obligate areobe), PASTEURELLA (cat/dog bite; ox+, cat-), FRANCISELLA (rabbits, carcasses; causes plague)
bite = pasteurella (grows in mouth); scratch = bartonella
name the lactose fermenting G- rods
"EECKS," grow pink on MacConkey's agar; FAST fermenters: Klebsiella, E.Coli, Enterobacter; SLOW fermenters: Serratia (red), Citrobacter
name the lactose non-fermenting G- rods
ox+: PSEUDOMONAS, V.CHOLERA; ox-: SHIGELLA (nonmotile, H2S-), SALMONELLA (motile, H2S+), PROTEUS (motile, urease+)
what medium does M.TB grow on?
lowenstein-jensen agar
what is giemsa stain used for?
Chlamydia, Borellia, Plasmodium, Trypanasomes
what is silver stain used for?
Fungi, PCP, Legionella
Segmented viruses, significance
influenza virus [8 (orthomyxovirus -->"ocho")], reoviruses [11], arenaviruses [2], bunyavirus [3]; allows genetic drift
which toxins acquired by lysogenic transduction?
OBED (O antigen of salmOnella; Botulinum toxin, Erytrogenic toxin of s. pyogenes; Diphtheria toxin)
which toxins acquired by conjugation?
LT toxin of ETEC (cholera-like)
most common method of transferring drug resistance
F+ to F- conjugation (esp in G- bacilli)
name the obligate aerobes
Nasty Pests Must Breathe (Nocardia, Pseudomonas, M.TB, Brucella, Bacillus, Bordatella)
name the obligate anaerboes
Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, Actinomyces, Bacteroides (lack CATALASE AND SOD)
what ribosomal inhibitors can't be used with anaerobes, and why?
aminoglycosides (need O2 to enter cell)
name the facultative intracellular organisms
Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY (Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia)
which bugs have capsules?
Some Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules (S.pneumo, Klebsiella, Hib, Pseudomonas, Neisseria Meningitis, Cryptococcus);
name the beta-hemolytic bacteria (4)
s.aureus, s.pyogenes, s.agalactiae, listeria (tumbling motility)
what bacteria form spores?
clostridium, bacillus, and coxelli-burnetti (like rickettsia, but forms endospore --> can be inhaled, doesn’t need tick, can cause pneumo w/o rash)
candida infections (4)
THRUSH in I/C (AIDS, neonates, oral steroids, diabetes); ENDOCARDITIS (ivdu); VAGINITIS (post abx); DIAPER RASH
tx for candida
superficial: NYSTATIN; systemic: AMPHOTERICIN B (+/- FLUCYTOSINE)
tx for systemic mycoses
local infec: FLUCONAZOLE, KETOCONAZOLE; systemic infection: AMPHOTERICIN B
tinea versicolor vs nigra
versicolor: HYPOpigment, caused by malessezia furfur, tx w topical miconazole/selneium sulfide; nigra: HYPERpigment, caused by cladosporium werneckii, tx w/ topical salicylic acid
fungi found in exrement
bat/bird droppings: HISTOPLASMOSIS; pigeon droppings: CRYPTOCOCCUS
cigar-shaped budding yeast, tx
sporothrix; TX: itraconazole, potassium iodide (take the rose bush, put IT in a POT)
tx for systemic yeasts
FLUCONAZOLE, FLUCYTOSINE (candida, cryptococcus)
amphotericin tox
NEPHROtox, CARDIOtox (arrhythmias), fevers/chills ("shake and bake"), hypotension
griseofulvin tox
why should you NEVER tease a PRO?
he'll CrUSH your RED PLATELETS (protease inhibitors --> cushingoid fat redistribution -- buffalo hump, central obesity);
influenza tx, mech, tox
AMANTADINE / RIMANTADINE: block penetration/uncoating; used for fluA, rubellA; tox: cerebellA; ZANAMIVIR, OSELTAMIVIR: inhibit neuraminidase (viral release); flu A+B
ribavirin: use, mech, tox
--| IMP dehydrogenase ==> --| GMP synth; used for RSV/HCV; tox: HA, teratogen
herpes tx and tox
ACYCLOVIR / FOSCARNET: nephro + neuro (delerium, tremor); GANCYCLOVIR: also get BM suppression
name 3 non-nucleoside RTIs
nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirnez
reverse transcriptase inhibitor tox
NRI: lactic acidosis, BM suppression and periph neuropathy; AZT: megaloblastic anemia
which drug used in HIV+ pregnant woman to dec risk of fetal transmission? Whats the tox of this drug?
AZT, megaloblastic anemia
abx to avoid during preg
SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care: Sulfas (kernicterus), Aminoglycosides (ototox), Fluoroquinolones (cartilage), Erythromycin (hep in mom), Metronidazole, Tetracycline (teeth, bones), Ribavirin, Griseofulvin, Chloramphenicol (gray baby)
name 3 protozoa that cause diarrhea
1) ENTAMOEBA histolytica: BLOODY, can cause liver abscess; 2) GIARDIA: NON-BLOODY, 2eyes,4flagella; 3) CRYPTOSPORIDIUM: severe in AIDS
what do giardia and trichomonas have in common?
protozoa, flagellated, foul smelling
bugs from uncooked pork
toxoplasma, taenia solium (both cause brain lesions)
toxo sx
tumor-like brain growth + chorioretinitis (yellow-white fluffy patches on red retina)
general malaria lifecycle
growth in liver, reproduction in RBCs, RBC rupture --> fever (seen my immune system for first time)
what are the 5 forms of malaria, and how are they characterized?
1) SPOROZOITE: only from mosquito --> liver; 2) TROPHOZOITE (liv: ball; rbc: ring); 3) SCHIZONT (after multiple mitoses -- thousands of cells); 4) MEROZOITE (particles burst out of cells: liver/RBC --> bloodstream); 5) HYPNOZOITE (only vivax/ovale): dormant forms, only kiled by primaquine
which malaria causes CNS damage?
malaria vs babesiosis
both invade RBCs --> fever, hemolysis (anemia); however, babesia is spread by TICKS (not mosquitos), and does NOT affect liver cells
what do you use to tx chloroquine resistant malaria (usu falciparum)?
mefloquine, quinine
what are the blood-borne flagellates? What do they cause?
TRYPANOSOMA (CRUZI [xmit by reduviig]: chagas = megacolon, dilated cardiomyopathy; GAMBIENSE/RHODESIENSE [xmit by tsetse fly]: afr sleeping sickness); LEISHMANIA (xmit by sandfly): visceral/cutaneous leishmaniasis
what does OnchOcerca volvusus cause? What do you tx it with?
RIVER BLINDNESS (the O's look like eyes); tx with IVERMECTIN (I VER = "I see" or "IVERmectin treats rIVER blindness")
what helminths cause intestinal infection? What do you tx them with?
Ancylostoma (anemia), Ascarsis lumbricoides, Enterobias (anal), Strongyloides; Tx strongyloides with IVERMECTIN/THIABENDAZOLE, rest with MEBENDAZOLE;
what is taenia solium?
tapeworm found in undercooked prok/ can cause mass lseion in brain, cysticercosis; tx w/ praziquantel
what are the flukes? What do you tx them with?
SCHISTOSOMA (liver); CLONORCHIS sinensis (bile duct), PARAGONIMUS (Lungs, para~=pulm); tx all with PRAZIQUANTEL
what does dracunculus medinensis cause?
skin ulcer (think dracula's fangs)
parasite w/ brain cysts/seizures
taenia solium
parasite w/ liver cysts
echinococcus granulosus
parasite w/ B12 deficiency
diphyllobothrium latum
parasite w/ biliary tract disease
clonorchis sinensis
parasite w/ hemoptysis
paragonimus westermani
parasite w/ portal htn
schistosoma mansoni
parasite w/ hematuria, bladder cancer
shistosoma haematobium
parasite w/ microcytic anemia
Ancylostoma, Necator
parasite w/ perianal pruritis
trichomonas vs trichinella
TRICHOMONAS = protozoa that causes vaginal infection; TRICHINELLA: worm in undercooked meat
naked (+) ssRNA vs naked (-) ssRNA
only naked (+) is infectious
rod-shaped basal ciliary bodies near nucleus, found in EPENDYMOMAS
what diseases can adenovirus cause?
common cold, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic cystitis
what viruses are in the picorna family?
"PERCH on a PEAK (pico):" Polio, Echo, Rhino, Coxsackie, HAV
MCC aseptic (viral) meningitis
1) Coxsackie; 2) Echovirus; 3) Mumps
viruses in calicivirus family
HEV, Norwalk (gastroenteritis)
"merica's got flava:" St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese Encephalitis, Yellow fever, Dengue fever, HCV
viruses in filovirus family
Ebola, Manburg hemorrhagic fever -- often fatal
california encephalitis, rift valley fever / sand fly fever, hantavirus (hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia)
how does hantavirus present?
flu-like illness --> respiratory failure; seen in southwest US (jared's land: "likes his hanta on his cocci"…)
what viral vaccines are egg-based?
"FRY an egg:" Flu, mmR, Yellow fever
MCC cold
Rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus
paramyxovirus vs orthomyxovirus
PARAMYXO has: 1) nonsegmented RNA; 2) HA + NA on same glycoprotein; 3) F (fusion) protein, creates multinucleated giant cells
what do paramyxoviruses cause?
all cause disease in KIDS: 1) PARAMYXOVIRUS: croup; 2) RSV: bronchiolitis, pneumonia (infants); 3) MUMPS; 4) MEASLES
sx of measles
3 Cs: Coryza, Conjunctivitis, Cough, Koplik spots
what on rabies virus surface is important for virulence?
antigens that bind ACh --> allows entrance into neurons --> retrograde transport up peripheral neruonal axes to CNS
timing of rabies infection
long incubation period (3 mos), partly due to long retrograde transport time
sx of yellow fever
high fever, black vomitus, jaundice (yellow), COUNCILMAN bodies (small red bodies in liver);
dengue fever presentation
2 steps; 1) initial infection --> inflam, pain response, BREAKBONE FEVER; 2) reinfection, different serotype forms Ics with Ags from first infection --> hemorrhage, shock, DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER
MCC infectious corneal blindness
keratoconjunctivitis from HSV-1
best test to determine active HAV infection
check for IgM HAVAb
what are the three HIV genes and their products?
gag (structural: gp41, gp120); env (capsid, nucleocapsid, matrix proteins); pol (enzymes: RT, protease, integrase)
how do you make HIV diagnosis?
ELISA = screening test; followup with WESTERN BLOT/PCR/VIRAL LOAD
three stages of HIV infection
PRIMARY: mono-like sx; ABs low, Ag/virus high, CD4 count high; LATENT: virus survives by mutations; Ag low, Ab high, CD4 high; IMMUNODEFICIENCY/AIDS: Ag high, Ab low, CD4 LOW
infections at CD4 < 400
constitutional sx (wt loss, night sweats, adenopathy); INFECTIONS: Tinea, Candida, VZV, TB, Bacterial (Hib, shigella, salmonella)
infections at CD4 < 200
PCP, Toxo, Cryptococcus, VZV, diarrhea (Cryptosporidium, Isospora)
infections at CD4 < 50
CMV (retinitis, esophagitis, disseminated); MAI (disseminated)
what kind of dz do prions cause?
spongiform encephalopathy (eg CJD -- rapid progressive dementia)
dz caused by actinomyces vs nocardia
nocardia is aerobic --> pulmonary infections in I/C patients; actinomyces I nl oral flora --> oral/facial abscesses
motility of enterobacteriaceae
shIgella -- nonmotile; Salmonella: motile; E.coli: very motile;
yersinia motility
enterocolitica is motile, pestis is not
how does e.coli get its virulence factors?
via plasmids
what bug preceeds HUS
** E.Coli **, maybe C.jejuni
weil-felix rxn
proteus Ags x-rx with rickettsia Ag -- use P.vulgaris Ags to test for Rickettsia
bloody diarrhea from daycare center
yersinia enterocolitis
bloody diarrhea that looks like appendicitis
yersinia enterocolitis
causes of watery diarrhea
ETEC (traveller's diarrhea), V.Cholera, C.perfringens, Protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidia -- NOT Entamoeba), Viruses (Rota, Norwalk, Adeno: "the watery diarrhea just RAN through my system")
b.pertussis virulence factor
filamentous hemagglutinin -- allows adherance to respiratory epithelium
G- bugs w/ respiratory xmission
Legionella, Hib, B.Pertussis (all coccoid)
Osteomyelitis in ivDu and Diabetics
what kind of patients does pseudomonas take advantage of?
CF, burn victims, ivdu and diabetics (osteomyelitis)
sx of tularemia
site-specific black ulcers, lymphadenopathy, plague-like
dz caused by brucella, transmission
Undulant fever (peaks in evening, nl in morning); xmission by dairy / animals; "Unpasteurized dairy gives you Undulant fever"
facultative intracellular zoonotics
BRUCELLA, FRANCISELLA, YERSINIA; very virulent; phagocytosed by macrophage --> LN --> blood --> organs; tx with AMINOGLYCOSIDES + DOXYCYCLINE; NOT pasteurella
tx for leprosy, tox of tx
dapsone; can cause hemolysis and methemoglobinemia
chlaymydia serotypes
A-C: trAChoma (conjunctivitis, 2' infec --> blindness); D-K: neonatal pneumo/conjunctivitis, Urethritis; L1-L3: lymphogranuloma venereum
2 forms of chlamydia parasite
ELEMENTARY BODY (small, dense, infectious) and INITIAL/RETICULATE BODY (intracellular, replicates)
rickettsia vs chlamydia
both oligate intracellular; CHLAMYDIA is human-human xmission, replicates in endosomes (reticulate body), tropic to columnar epithelial cells and mucous membranes; RICKETSSIA is arthropod-borne, replicates in cytoplasm, and is tropic to endothelial cells lining BV
R. Rickettsii vs R. Prowazekki
RICKETSII has centripetal spreading rash (from palms/soles); PROWAZEKKI has centrigually spreading rash, SPARES palms/soles; S.Pyogenes Scarlet Fever also has centrifugal spread, spares FACE
rickettsia vs coxiella
same family, but coxiella can form endospores -- doesn't need arthropod vector (can be inhaled) ==> can cause resp infection w/o rash
treponema pertenue
YAWS: tropical infection (non-STD even tho VDRL +); gummas disfigure face ("JAWS taking a bite")
congenital syphilis
saber shins, saddle nose, deafness (CN VIII)
what can cause false positive VDRL?
VDRL (Viruses [mono, hep], Drugs, Rheumatic fever / Rhematoid arthritis, Lupus and Leprosy)
what antibiotics are bactericidal?
AMP-GENT (penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporins; aminoglycosides); C.dif KILLING drugs (vanc, metro), Fluoroquinolones
what is ampiillin/amoxicillin used for?
amoxicillin HELPS kill ENTEROCOCCI (Hib, E.coli, Listeria, Proteus, Salmonella, Enterococci)
when to use aztreonem?
G- rods, pts with penicillin allergies or renal insuffiency (can't take aminoglycosides)
drug of choice for enterobacter
imipenem/cilastin || meropenem
what drugs facilitate aminoglycoside toxicities?
CEPHALOSPORINS (nephrotox); OTOTOX (loop diuretics)
tetracycline vs doxycycline
tet excreted renally, doxy via liver ==> give doxy in pts with renal failure;
what to use tetracycline for?
VACUUM THe BedRoom (V.Cholera, Acne, Chlamydia, Ureaplasma Urealyticum, Mycoplasma, Treponema, Tularemia, H.Pylori, Borellia, Rickettsia)
uses of macrolides
1) PNA: Chlamydia, Legionella, Mycoplasma, S.pneumo (only in pts w penicillin allerg); 2) STD: Chlamydia, Neisseria
use of chloramphenicol
meningitis if pt allergic to ceftriaxone
main uses of TMP/SMX
UTI (e.coli), PCP, GI bugs (Shigella, Salmonella)
sulfa tox
G6PD, hypersensitivity, nephrotox, kernicterus in infants, displaces drugs from albumin (eg warfarin)
fluoroquinolone use
"gyrators, drinking and dancing" -- don't want to have to pee, because it BURNS (tx UTIs); also tx some GI bugs (pseudomonas!)
uses of METRO
1) GET on the metro (Giardia, Entameoba, Trichomonas); 2)Anaerobes below the diaphragm (Bacteroides, Clostridium, Gardnerella [almost an anaerobe]); 3) H.Pylori (TBAM!)
uses/tox of polymixins
used for resistant gram negs; tox: neuro+nephro
2nd line TB tx
use of rifampin
TB, delay resistance to dapson in leprosy, meningococcal/Hib prophylaxis
prophylaxis for endocarditits with dental/surgical procedures
prophylaxis for meningococcus
rifampin (drug of choice), else minocycline
which drug resistance involves changing of binding site?
vancomycin, macrolides, sulfas (also inc PABA)
which drug resistance involves modification of the antibiotic?
aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol
which drug resistance involves decreasing uptake?
tetracycline (also inc export), sulfas (also inc PABA)
Staph causes pneumo in which populations?
nosocomial, immunocompromised, postviral, some EtOH/IVDU (s.pneumo and klebsiella first in this group)
MCC pneumo in kids (<18y), adults (<40)
kids: Viruses, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia Pneumo, Strep Pneumo; adults are the same but no viruses
MCC pneumo/meningitis in neonates
Grp. B strep, E. Coli (from vagina); meningitis can also be caused by LISTERA (in neonates and elderly)
what do you use to kill anaerobes?
amoxicillin/ampicillin, +/- gentamycin or clavunate; remember, AMPICILLIN HELPS kill ENTEROCOCCI, "HELPS" = G- rods
pnemo with honeycomb exudate
what does a leukocyte esterase test tell you?
positive = bacterial UTI
what does a nitrite test tell you in UTI?
positive = gram negative
bug with large mucoid capsule and viscous colonies
but with metallic sheen on EMB agar
e. coli
bug with motility causing "swarming" on agar, produces urease
2 STD causes of genital ulcers and inguinal lymphadenopahty
C. Trachomatis (L1-L3), painLESS ulcers, painFUL lymphadenopathy; H. Ducreyi, painFUL ulcers
genital infection in C.Trachomatis L1-L3 vs D-K
L1-L3: ulcers, lymphadenopathy; D-K: cervicitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, Reiter's syndrome
vaginitis w/ strawberry colored mucosa
trichomonas vaginalis
causes of painful genital ulcers (2)
H. Ducreyi, HSV2; H.ducreyi is a/w lymphadenopathy
causes of painLESS genital ulcers/warts (3)
HPV, Syphilis, C.Trachomatis L1-L3 (Lymphogranuloma venereum)
ulcers w/ painful lymphadenopathy and rectal strictures
c.trachomatis L1-L3 (lymphogranuloma venereum)
in what conditions does pseudomonas cause nosocomial infections?
AIRuginosa when AIR (or burns) involved
what nosocomial infection common in renal dialysis unit?
what nosocomial infection common in newborn nursery?