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100 Cards in this Set

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Intrafusal Muscle Fibers
receptors in stretch reflex
innerviated by gamma motor neurons
Monosynaptic reflex
least delay
Ex. stretch reflex
receptor is muscle spindle
Polysynaptic Reflex
interneurons control more than 1 muscle group
produces EPSP or IPSP
With draw reflex- reciprocal inhibition
Ipsilateral Reflex Arcs
occur on same side
Stretch, tendon, & withdraw reflexes
Crossed Extensor Reflex
cordinated simultaneously with flexor reflex
5 Characteristics of Polysynaptic Reflexes
1. involve pool of neurons
2. are inter segmental in distribution
3. involve reciprocal inhibition
4. have reverberating circuits - prolong motor response
5. Several refexes coop to produce controled cordinated response
Cranial Meninges Layers
Outer to inner
Dura Mater
Arachnoid Layer
Pia Mater
Dura Mater
Endosteal Layer: Outer Fibrous Layer
Venus Sinus Layer
Meningeal Layer: Inner Fibrous Layer
Dura Folds
Folded inner layer (Meningeal Layer) of Dura Mater
Extend into Cranial Cavity
Collecting Veins: Dural Sinuses
Flax Cerebri
Flax Tentorium Cerebelli
Flax Cerebelli
Flax Tentorium Cerebelli
Separates Cerebellum & Cerebrum

Contains Transverse sinus
Flax cerebri
btw Cerebral Hemispheres

Contains
Superior Sagittal Sinus
Inferior Sagittal Sinus
Flax Cerebelli
btw Cerebral Hemispheres
under tentorium cerebelli
Arachnoid Mater
contacts dura mater Epithelium
Covers brain
Subarachnoid space
btw arachnoid mater & pia mater
Pia Mater
attached to brain by astrocytes
who makes CSF
Choroid Plexus
- Astrocytes
- Ependymal Cells
Choroid Plexus
Secretes CSF into ventricals

comprised of cappilary bed, Pia Mater, & Choroid Epithelial cells
Blood Brain Barrier
tight junctions btw endothelial cells of capillaries
Astrocyte control permeability of endothelium
lipid compounds & gases can diffuse
Brain Stem- Function
Passes info btw spinal cord &
Cerebrum
or
Cerebellum
Brain Stem- parts
Pon
Midbrain
Medulla Oblongata
midbrain
AKA: Mesencephalon

sight, sound, & associated Reflexes

Maintains Consciousness
Pons- basic
Connects Cerebellum to brain stem

Somatic & Visceral Motor Control
Medulla Oblongata
relays info btw Brain & spinal cord (Thanamus. . )

Cordinates complex Autonomic Reflexes
- Heart Rate
- BP
- Digestion
Medulla Oblongata- Nuclei
Autonomic Nuclei: control visceral activities

Sensory & Motor Nuclei: of cranial nerves

Relay Stations: along sensory & motor pathways
Pons- links
connects cerebellum with Mesencephalon, Diencephalon, Cerebrum, & Spinal Cord
Apneustic center & pneumotaxic center located
Pons Nuclei-Respiration
– modify respiratory rhythmicity center activity
how is the Pons connected to the Cerebellum
transverse fibers (Axons)
link Pons w/nuclei of opposite cerebellar hemisphere
What are the 3 parts of the Mesencephalon
Tectum
Tegmentum
Cerebral Peduncles
Mesencephalon- Tectum
2 pairs of sensory nuclei Corpora quadrigemina:

– superior colliculus (visual)
– inferior colliculus (auditory)
Mesencephalon- Tegmentum
Red nucleus: motor cordination

Substatia Nigra (pigmented gray matter)
Mesencephalon - Cerebral Peduncles
Nerve Fibers on ventrolateral surface

descending fibers to Cerebellum

Corticospinal

Corticobulbar
Cerebellum- basics
2nd largest part of brain
Cordinates repetitive muscle movements
posture
fine tune sub/conscious movements
Cerebellum - parts
Folia
Anterior & Posterior Lobes
Cerebellar Hemispheres
Vermis
Flocculonodular Lobe
Cerebellum - Folia
Cerebellar surface: highly folded neural cortex
Cerebellum- Anterior & Posterior Lobes
separated by primary fissure
Cerebellum- hemispheres
Separated at midline by Vermis
Cerebellum - Vermis
Separates Cerebellar Hemispheres at midline

Narrow Band of Cortex
Cerebellum - Flocculonodular Lobe
below 4th ventricle
Cerebellum - Peduncles
links cerebellum w/spinal cord, cerebrum, & brain stem
3 parts
-superior cerebellar peduncles
-middle cerebellar peduncles
-inferior cerebellar peduncles
Disorders of the Cerebellum
Ataxia
caused by stroke or trauma
Disturbs muscle coordination
Common symptoms
– Sudden, uncoordinated movement
– Walking problems (unsteady gait)
– Sudden eye movements (nystagmus)
– Clumsy speech pattern (dysarthria
Diencephalon- basics
links cerebrum w/brain stem

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Neuroglia in PNS
Satellite Cells
Schwann Cells
What glial cells in CNS
Ependymal Cells
Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes
Microglia
Glial PNS
Satellite Cells
Schwann Cells
these myelinate
Schwann Cells (PNS)

Oligodendrocytes (CNS)
glia absorbe NT
Astrocytes
Satellite cells
lec 3
lec 3
What are the 4 types of general sensory receptors
Nociceptors (pain)
Thermoreceptors (temperature)
Mechanoreceptors (physical distortion)
Chemoreceptors (chemical concentration
Nociceptors
Free Nerve endings
Innerveated by type A or type C
Type A Fibers
Thinly Myelinated, fast pain, Prickling pain like injection or deep cut

--> primary sensory cortex for conscious attention
Type C FIbers
Unmyelinated, slow burning pain
Cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and thalamus
Aware of pain, but only general idea of it's location
Thermoreceptors
Free nerve endings located in the Hypothalamus

- Anterior cooling

- Posterior warming
Mechanoreceptors
3 Classes:
Tactile
- epicritic: fine
- protopathic: crude/pressure


Baroreceptors

Proprioceptors
Tactile Receptors:
Touch - shape & texture

Pressure- degree of PM distortion

Vibration- pulsing or oscillating pressure
6 types of Tactile Receptors in skin
1) Free Nerve Endings
2) Root hair plexus nerve endings
3) Merkel discs (tactile discs)
4) Meissner Corpuscles (tactile corpuscles)
5) Pacinian Corpuscles (Lamellated corpuscles)
6) Ruffini Corpuscles
Tonic Tactile Receptors
Free nerve endings

Merkel Discs

Ruffini corpuscles
Phasic Tactile Receptors
Root hair plexus nerve endings

Meissner Corpuscles

Pacinian Corpuscles
Superficial, Epicritic Tactile Receptors
Free nerve endings

Merkel discs 2nd deepest

Meissner corpuscles
Deep Tactile Receptors
Ruffini corpuscle

Pacinian Corpuscle

Root Hair Plexus
Protopathic  (Crude touch & pressure)
& Deep
Pacinian corpuscle

Ruffini
Epicritic
Free nerve endings

Meisner's corpuscle

Merkel's Disks
Proprioceptors (3 types)
Muscle Spindles

Golgi tendon organs

joint capsules
Muscle Spindles
Monitor skeletal muscle length & trigger stretch reflexes
Golgi tendon organs
Btw muscle & tendon

Monitors external tension during contraction

Stimulated by tendon tension
Joint capsule receptors
Free nerve endings detect pressure tension

Movement @ joint
Chemoreceptors
In arteries: Carotid & Aortic bodies

pH CO2, O2
3 Somatic Sensory Pathways
Dorsal Column/medial lemiscus/Posterior column pathway

Spinothalamic pathway

Spinocerebellar pathway
Dorsal Columns pathway senses
Fine touch
Pressure
Vibration
Proprioception
Gracile fasciculus- Medial, from Sacral lower
Cuneate fasciculus- Lateral, cervical upper
Dorsal Columns pathway
Medulla Oblongata -->

Thalamus (VPL) -->

primary Somatosensory Cortex
Spinothalamic Pathway senses
Protopathic Touch
Pressure
Pain
Temp
Spinothalamic Pathway
1st order enter SC & synapse w/2nd Posterior Gray Horns

2nd order decussate in SC (Neo-spinothalamic tracts) --> VPL


3rd --> 1 Somatosensory Cortex
Neo-Spinothalamic Tract
Anterior tracts- crude touch & pressure

Lateral tracts- pain & temp
Efferent motor pathways always have
Upper motor neuron- body in CNS inhibits/activates--> lower motor neuron

Lower Motor Neuron - cell body in nucleus of brain stem or SC w/axon extending out CNS, if damaged can't reflex or control motor unit
Corticospinal pathway 3 pairs of decending tracts
Cortcobulbar tract
Lateral Corticospinal tract
Anterior Cortiocospinal tract
Corticobulbar tract
Skeletal muscles neck & face

NOT CN: 1, 2, 8, 10
Lateral Corticospinal tract
85% decussate @ Pyramids (thick bands in Medulla)
Synapse on lower motor neuron in SC
Anterior Corticospinal tract
15 % decussate @ anterior white commisure
Synapses on lower motor neurons in anterior gray horns
Extra-Pyramidal System
cerebrum, diencephalon, and brain stem

Medial Pathway- gross movement of trunk & proximal limb muscles

Lateral Pathway- precise movements distal limb muscles
Extra-Pyramidal Medial Pathway gets info from 3 areas
1. Vestibular nuclei (Brain Stem) --> Vestibulospinal

2. S/I Colliculi (Mesensephalon) --> Tectospinal

3. Reticular formation (Brain Stem) --> reticulospinal
Extra-Pyramidal- Medial- Vestibular muclei
Gets info from CN 8 (vestibulocochlear nerve)
Posture balance
--> vestibulospinal tracts
Superior/Inferior Colliculi
Roof of mesencephalon - tectum
visual (superior)
auditory (inferior)
Cross over b/f tectospinal tracts
Extra-Pyramidal- Medial- Reticular formation
Brainstem
Upper motor neurons in reticular formation --> reticulospinal tracts
Don't cross over
Extra Pyramidal - Lateral Pathway
Upper motor neurons in Red Nuclei cross over -->
Rubrospinal tracts
Basal Nuclei & Cerebellum
or coordination and feedback control over muscle contractions
(consciously or subconsciously directed)
Basal Nuclei (5)
putamen, the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei, substantia niagra
Basal nuclei function
Background patterns of movement in voluntary
Connects with premotor cortex,
alters the pattern of instructions carried by the corticospinal tracts
Cerebellum monitors info about
Proprioceptive
Visual
Vestibular
lec 4
lec 4
ANS organization
Visceral Motor Neurons (preganglionic neurons) in Brain Stem & SC, axons leave CNS -->

Ganglionic Neurons -->

Post Ganglionic Neurons --> innerveate organs
ANS has 3 divisions
Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

Enteric Nervous System: local nervous system from esophagus to anus
Sympathetic: Basics
Preganglion: thoracic and superior lumbar; T1-L2
Thoracolumbar - Short

-> ganglion near SC

Postganglion: Long
Parasympathetic: Basic
Preganglion: brain stem and sacral segments of spinal cord;
craniosacral- Long

-->ganglia close (or within) target organs

Postganglion: Short
Enteric Nervous System: Basics
network in GI walls

visceral reflexes coordinated locally

gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and possibly absorption
Sympathetic: Preganglionic Fibers
T1-L2
Cell bodies in lateral gray horns
axons enter ventral roots of segments

give rise to myelinated white ramus
-> many ganglionic fibers, interconnecting them
Sympathetic: Ganglion fibers (3)
Sympathetic chain ganglia

Collateral ganglia

Suprarenal medullae
Sympathetic Ganglion: Symapthetic chain ganglia
Both sides of vertebral column

Control effectors:
– in body wall
– inside thoracic cavity
– in head
– in limbs
Sympathetic Ganglion: Collateral ganglia
Are anterior to vertebral bodies

innervate tissues and organs in abdominopelvic cavity
Sympathetic Ganglion: Adrenal medulla
Short Axons release NT into Blood

Function as hormones to affect target cells throughout body
Each sympathetic chain ganglia contains
3 cervical ganglia

10–12 thoracic ganglia

4–5 lumbar ganglia

4–5 sacral ganglia

1 coccygeal ganglion
what is on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon
Cerebral pudncles