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43 Cards in this Set

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interspecific interaction
Relationships between species of a community.
interspecific competition
"Competition for resources between plants, between animals, or between decomposers when resources are in short supply. "
competitive exclusion
"The concept that when populations of two similar species compete for the same limited resources, one population will use the resources more efficiently and have a reproductive advantage that will eventually lead to the elimination of the other population. "
ecological niche
The sum total of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment.
None
resource partitioning
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species
character displacement
The tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.
cryptic coloration
Camouflage
aposematic coloration
The bright coloration of animals with effective physical or chemical defenses that acts as a warning to predators.
Batesian mimicry
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
Müllerian mimicry
A mutual mimicry by two unpalatable species.
endoparasite
A parasite that lives within a host.
ectoparasite
A parasite that feeds on the external surface of a host.
parasitoidism
"A type of parasitism in which an insect lays eggs on or in a living host; the larvae then feed on the body of the host, eventually killing it. "
pathogen
A disease–causing agent.
mutualism
A symbiotic relationship in which both participants benefit.
commensalism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is neither helped nor harmed.
coevolution
The mutual evolutionary influence between two different species interacting with each other and reciprocally influencing each other?s adaptations.
allopatric
geographically separate
sympatric
geographically overlapping
nonequilibrium model
The model of communities that emphasizes that they are not stable in time
disturbance
A force that changes a biological community and usually removes organisms from it
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
The concept that moderate levels of disturbance can foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance.
ecological succession
Transition in the species composition of a biological community, often following ecological disturbance of the community
primary succession
A type of ecological succession that occurs in a virtually lifeless area, where there were originally no organisms and where soil has not yet formed.
secondary succession
succession that occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact.
evapotranspiration
The evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants.
integrated hypothesis
The concept that a community is an assemblage of closely linked species, locked into association by mandatory biotic interactions
individualistic hypothesis
concept that a plant community is a chance assemblage of species found in the same area because they have similar biotic requirements.
species diversity
The number and relative abundance of species in a biological community.
species richness
The number of species in a biological community.
relative abundance
Differences in the abundance of different species within a community.
trophic structure
The different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling.
food chain
The pathway along which food is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers.
food web
The elaborate, interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem.
energetic hypothesis
The concept that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain. Predicts that food chains should be relatively longer in habitats of higher photosynthetic productivity
dynamic stability hypothesis
The idea that long food chains are less stable than short chains. Predicts that food chains should be shorter in unpredictable environments
dominant species
Those species in a community that have the highest abundance or highest biomass. These species exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species.
biomass
The dry weight of organisms in a particular habitat.
invasive species
A species that takes hold outside of its native range; usually introduced by humans.
keystone species
A species that exerts strong control on community structure by the nature of its ecological role or niche.
Foundation Species
cause physical changes in the environment that affect the structure of the community
facilitator
A species that has a positive effect on the survival and reproduction of other species in a community
biomanipulation
Reduces algae by manipulating the higher–level consumers