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51 Cards in this Set

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7 key words of 51
TETONIC PLATES
ATMOSPHERE
HYDROSPHERE
OZONE
CONDUCTION
CONVECTION
RADIATION
FIRST DISCRIPTIOR
THE EARTH WAS FORMED (CREATED ) AROUND 4.6 BILLION YEARS AGO
SECOND DISCRIPTIOR
THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARTH IS IMPORTANT FOR LIVING THINGS, BUT IS ALSO DEPENDENT ON LIVING THINGS FOR ITS COMPOSTIION
THIRD DESCRIPTIOR
TEH MAJORITY OF EARTH IS COVERED IN WATER, A FACT MAKES OUR PLANET UNIQUE, AND IS THE REASON WHY OUR PLANET SUPPORTS LIFE: INDEED, THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS NECESSARY FOR LIFE OCCUR IN WATER
FORTH DISCRIPTOR
THERE ARE A FEW IMPORTANT SOURCES OF ENERGY THAT DRIVE TEH EARTH SYSTEM, AND THE PORCESSES OF CONVERSION, CONDCUCTION, AND RADIATION ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSFEERING THE ENERGY
5TH PRECESER
TEH EARTH SYSTEM
the earth is the ______ planet in our solar system in terms of distance from the sun and the______largest
third, 5th
The earth is the only one in the planet to support
life
formed 4.6 billion years ago along with the astroid impact form from________, moon
earth
THE OUTER LAYER OF EARTH
CRUST
DIVISION OF THE OUTER LAYER OF THE
TETONIC PLATES THAT MOVE ACROSS THE SERVICE VERY LONG PERIONDS OF TIME
FORMATION OF THE FOLLOWING OCCURS DURING THIS PROCESS,EARTHQUAKES, VOLCANIC ACTIVITY, MOUNTAIN-BUILDING, OCEANIAC TRENCH CREATION
FORMATION OCCUR ALONG PLATE BOUNDARIES
The highly viscous mantle on which plate floats and a
liquid outer core, and a solid innr core that generates a magnetic field
The earth is comprised of
iron(35.1%),

oxygen (28.2%),
silicon (17.2%),
magnesium(15.9)%
_aluminum (1.5%), calcium (1.6%),
The Pedoshphere is teh outermost layer of the
-earth that is composed of soil undergoes soil formation
process
Pedoshpere
exist at the interface of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and bioshpere
Erosion and Tectonic process do what?
process modify the earth surface.
Law of Superpostiion
younger stuff is on top and the older stuff is on the bottem
law of Cross-cutting Relationship
If it cuts it it must be younger
THE 1 OF THREE TYPES OF FAULTS
NORMAL-BEING PULLED APART BY TENSION
Normal
THE 2ND OF THREE TYPES OF FAULTS
REVERSE WHEN ROCKS ARE BEING PUSHED TOGETHER OR COMPRESSED
reverse
THE 3 OF THREE TYPES OF FAULTS
STRIKESLIP OR TRANSMORM they have a sliding action, move sideways to rocks on the bottem
transform or strikeslip
Subduction
like when a smaller rock goes under a bigger rock
Diverge
as lava rised from the mantle beneath New crust is made when the mantle are pulled apat
Converge Where plates
colide are come together,a s one plate forces the other into the mantle where it melts
Subduction
plate forces the other into the mantle where it melts this process is called subduction and is responsible for the RING OF FIRE, a series of volcanos that rings the pacific ocean, also causes one plate running over the other trenches
ring of fire
THE 1 OF THREE TYPES OF FAULTS
NORMAL-BEING PULLED APART BY TENSION
Normal
THE 2ND OF THREE TYPES OF FAULTS
REVERSE WHEN ROCKS ARE BEING PUSHED TOGETHER OR COMPRESSED
reverse
THE 3 OF THREE TYPES OF FAULTS
STRIKESLIP OR TRANSMORM they have a sliding action, move sideways to rocks on the bottem
transform or strikeslip
Subduction
plate forces the other into the mantle where it melts this process is called subduction and is responsible for the RING OF FIRE, a series of volcanos that rings the pacific ocean, also causes one plate running over the other trenches
ring of fire
Driver of Plate tectorinis
Crust (5-100) km thick
Mantle 2900
The Atmoshphere
The first layer of the atmosphere is but rather it is made out of the gases that we breath everyday. This layer is called the troposphere. The troposphere is the layer that we live in.
-ozone layer protects orgnism from harmful rays



The next layer of our atmosphere is called the stratosphere. Above the stratosphere lies the mesosphere, followed by the thermosphere, and finally the exosphere. The mesosphere and thermosphere are often referred to together as the ionosphere because of the way they reflect the ionized energy of the Sun. In order to help scientists identify the border between each of these layers, scientists have given special names to the boundaries between a number of them. The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere is referred to as the tropopause. The border between the stratosphere and the mesosphere is called the stratopause. And the line separating the mesosphere from the thermosphere is called the mesopause.
Diatomic (O2)
oxygen-it is needed by the ozone can only be produced in the atmoshpere
The Atomsosphere is
The first layer of the atmosphere is fortunately not made out of cake, but rather it is made out of the gases that we breath everyday. This layer is called the troposphere. The troposphere is the layer that we live in.



The next layer of our atmosphere is called the stratosphere. Above the stratosphere lies the mesosphere, followed by the thermosphere, and finally the exosphere. The mesosphere and thermosphere are often referred to together as the ionosphere because of the way they reflect the ionized energy of the Sun. In order to help scientists identify the border between each of these layers, scientists have given special names to the boundaries between a number of them. The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere is referred to as the tropopause. The border between the stratosphere and the mesosphere is called the stratopause. And the line separating the mesosphere from the thermosphere is called the mesopause.
atmosspher is 78% nitrogen and __ oxygen
with traces amount of gaseous moulcules such as water vapor
The atomspher protects by observing ultraviolit radiation, moderting temp. trasport water vapor,and provides useful gases
_very important in determining weather/climate
hydorsphere-About 71% of the surface is covered in salt water ocians
Welcome to something we like to call the hydrosphere! This is where we talk about the way water moves through the world. Water affects everything that happens in life. In Latin, "hydro" means water. Therefore, anything that scientists describe, when it comes to water, is a part of the HYDROsphere. That water may be at the bottom of the ocean or in the top layers of the atmosphere; it is all a part of the hydrosphere.


WATER WATER EVERYWHERE
Water is in the air, on the land, between the rocks, and in every living thing. Water, in its purest form, is H20 (two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom). You will usually find ions or compounds floating around in it, but water is just one small molecule. As you'll discover, it's very busy. While water may move and carry other substances with it, you need to remember that pure liquid water is the thing that makes life on Earth possible.

Liquid water makes the Earth a special place. Our planet has a very nice temperature range that allows water to remain in its liquid state. If we were a colder object like Pluto, it would not matter how much water there was on the planet; it would all be frozen. On the other hand, if we were on a very hot planet, all of the water would be in a gaseous state. Water vapor and solid water are useless to the living organisms found on Earth. Since the hydrosphere includes all of the water on the planet, you will study all of the various states of water. There will be solids in the deep glaciers, liquids of the oceans, and the vapor state of clouds.


I AM WATER, HEAR ME EVAPORATE
So you're a water molecule. Chances are you'll stay a water molecule and won't ever be broken down. The world likes to keep its water around. Imagine that you're moving through the hydrologic cycle. You evaporate, fall as rain, and drain into a river. There's not a lot of excitement. How much time does it take? Scientists think that if you are lucky enough to evaporate into a cloud, you spend about ten days floating around the atmosphere. If you're unlucky enough to be at the bottom of the ocean or stuck in a glacier, you might spend tens of thousands of years without moving.
The Water Cyclew
The earth has a limited amount of water. That water keeps going around and around and around and around and (well, you get the idea) in what we call the "Water Cycle".
This cycle is made up of a few main parts:

evaporation (and transpiration)
condensation
precipitation
collection
TRANSPORT WATER TO THE HYDROSHPHERE
-ALL IMPORTANT CHEMICAL REACTONS OCCURE IN WATER-HYDROSPHERE
EVAPORTATION
Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air. EVAPORATION and wetland swampes serve to remove a large portion of atmospher pollutants from the atmosphere
cONDESATION
Condensation:
Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. This is called condensation.

You can see the same sort of thing at home... pour a glass of cold water on a hot day and watch what happens. Water forms on the outside of the glass. That water didn't somehow leak through the glass! It actually came from the air. Water vapor in the warm air, turns back into liquid when it touches the cold glass.
pRECEPTION
Precipitation:
Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.
cOLLECTION
Collection:
When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land. When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts
SOURCES OF ENERGY THAT DRIVE THE EARTH SYSTEM-
SOLAR RADIATION
The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth.

Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. The major drawbacks (problems, or issues to overcome) of solar energy are: (1) the intermittent and variable manner in which it arrives at the earth's surface and, (2) the large area required to collect it at a useful rate.

Solar energy is used for heating water for domestic use, space heating of buildings, drying agricultural products, and generating electrical energy.

In the 1830s, the British astronomer John Herschel used a solar collector box to cook food during an expedition to Africa. Now, people are trying to use the sun's energy for lots of things.

Electric utilities are trying photovoltaics, a process by which solar energy is converted directly to electricity. Electricity can be produced directly from solar energy using photovoltaic devices or indirectly from steam generators using solar thermal collectors to heat a working fluid.

Out of the 14 known solar electric generating units operating in the US at the end of 2004, 10 of these are in California, and 4 in Arizona. No statistics are being collected on solar plants that produce less than 1 megawatt of electricity, so there may be smaller solar plants in a number of other states.
SOURCES OF ENERGY THAT DRIVE THE EARTH SYSTEM-Geomthermal Energy
We use the very high heat of the inside of the Earth to make electricity. Underground water reservoirs are heated by the very hot rocks of the crust (which are heated by magma below them, which is heated by the extremely hot core). We use this hot water to make steam, which powers a generator that makes electricity
SOURCES OF ENERGY THAT DRIVE THE EARTH SYSTEM-Planetary Energy
thsi is produced by gravity attraction between the earth, moon, Sund and larger planets. Tidel energy is the force
MECHINSMS OF ENERGY TRANSFER-cONDUCTION
Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and hence acts to even out temperature differences.

The thermal energy, in the form of continuous random motion of the particles of the matter, is transferred by the same forces that act to support the structure of matter, so can be said to move by 'physical' contact between the particles.

It should be noted that heat can also be transferred by Thermal radiation and/or convection, and often more than one of these processes occur in a particular situation.

The law of heat conduction, also known as Fourier's law, states that the time rate of heat transfer through a material is proportional to the negative gradient in the temperature and to the area at right angles, to that gradient, through which the heat is flowing:
cONVECTION-CURRENT
THIS IS THE MOVEMENT OF HEAT BY A LIQUID OR A GAS. tHIS MOVEMENT OF A MASS OF HEATED LIQUID OR GAS IS CALLED A CURRENT
rADIATION
the process by which heat travels from the sun vea electormagnetic waves. When the waves hi a material, the molecules in that material move faster
What can cause The Earth Systems to be altered
-EXTREME WEATHER: TYPHOONS, HURICANCS
-NATURAL DISATERS: TORNADOS, EARTHQUAKES
-HUMAN-made pollution-air and water, acid rain, toxic substances,
-loss of VEGETATION-(overgrazing, Deforestation, desertification,
-loss of wildlife
-species extinction
-soil degradation, depletion, erosion,
-intro of invasive species are non-matural causes of alterations
1) the teacher possesses knowledge regard the basic characteristics of
the earth including HYDORSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE
2) TEACH U TEH SOURCES OF ENERGY THAT
POWER THE EARTH SYSTEMS AND HOW ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED
3) TEH TEACH MUST UNDERSTAND THAT:
TEH EARTH SYSTEM IS SUBJECT TO A CATASTRPHIC PROCESSES BOTH NATURAL AND MANMADE