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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
consciousness
process underlying the mental model we create of the world.
cognitive neuroscience
interdisciplinary field thats interested in how the brain processes info and creates conscious experience.
nonconscious processes
any process you do without consciously thinking about it.
Functions of Conciousness
1. restricts our attention
2. Place where we create meaning from external stimuli and how we cognitively interpret them

3. Allows us to change our mental model of the world
preconscious mind
info not currently in the conscious mind that can be recalled
unconscious mind
collection of mental processes that operate outside of awareness
daydreaming
attention shifts from the immediate situation
circadian rhythms
physiological patters that repeat approximately every 24 hours
REM sleep
stage that occurs approximately 90 mins, marked by bursts of rapid eye movements, associated with dreaming
NREM sleep
all other sleep periods
sleep paralysis
sleeper cant move any voluntary muscles except those controlling the eyes (normally during REM)
Sleep Cycle
1.)people cycle through stages 1-4 then reverse the order

2.) once they reach stage one again, REM starts for a short period of time

3.) Cycle through this 4-6 times per night, with deep sleep decreasing and REM increasing through each cycle
REM rebound-
increased REM sleep caused y too little REM sleep the night before
Possible Functions of Sleep
1.) evolved through energy conservation and safety

2.) restorative

3.) forget things we learned that day and don't need
sleep debt
sleep shortage caused by not getting the amount of sleep needed to function on highest level.
Freud
dreams have clues to the unconscious

Guard sleep by relieving psychic tensions throughout the day

serve as sources of wish fulfillment
Manifest Content
Plot a dream
Latent Content
symbolic meanings of objects and events in a dream
Activation synthesis Theory
dreams begin with random electrical activity coming from the brain which then tries to synthesize the random activity
Insomnia
insufficient sleep, inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent sleep disruptions, early awakening
Sleep Apnea
person intermitenly stops breathing through the night
Night Terrors
deep sleep episodes that produce terror, but the person doesn't remember
Narcolepsy
sudden daytime sleep attacks where person enters REM sleep immediately may also include catalexy (sudden loss of muscle control)
hypnosis
induced state of awareness characterized by heightened suggestibility, relaxation and focused attention
Hypnosis Theories
1.) Distinct state of consciousness
2.) heightened motivation
3.) just a social process where the person tries to please the hypnotist
4.) is a dissociated state involving a "hidden observer" who operates at the same time as normal consciousness
meditation
state of consciousness induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions and minimizing external stimuli
psychoactive drugs
chemicals that affect mental process
hallucinagens
change consciousness by altering perceptions or creaking hallucinations
ex: LSD, shrooms, PCP, mary jane
opiates
highly addictive drugs that produce a sense of well being and are strong like pain meds
ex: morphine, heroin, codein
depressants
drugs that allow mental and physical activity
ex: sleep pills, anti-anxiety drugs, and alcohol
stimulants
speed up CNS activity- boosting mental and physical activity level
ex: crack, speed, ecstasy, caffeine, nicotine
tolerance
reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated use
physical dependence
process where a person requires a drug for everyday functioning
addiction
person continues to use a drug despite adverse effects on their health or life
withdrawl
uncomfortable symkptoms experienced when drug use is reduced or eliminated
psychological dependence
desire to use a drug despite no physical dependence