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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of gland is the thyroid?
What do thyroid hormones maintain?
metabolism of other tissues
Describe the essentialness of the thyroid.
it is not essential in adults, but its absence in children leads to mental retardation and dwarfism
Describe the vasculature of the thyroid.
highly vascular and has one of the highest blood flow rates per gram of tissue of any organ of the body
What are the two major lobes of the thyroid? What others are present?
right and left lobes
a small pyramidal lobe is present at the isthmus in 40% of individuals
What separates the right and left lobes of the thyroid?
What is the pyramidal lobe a remnant of?
the embryonic thyroglossal duct
What does the thyroid gland develop from? Between what branchial arches?
a down growth off the pharynx
between the 1st and 2nd branchial arches
What markes the down growth of the thyroid in the adults?
the foramen cecum at the apex of the sulcus terminalis marking the anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 of the tongue
Describe the extension of the thyroglossal duct.
extends down from the foramen cecum over the hyoid bone and down to the seconds tracheal ring
Where is the site of the adult isthmus?
at the second tracheal ring
What is abnormal enlargement of the thyroid called?
What does the thyroid gland wrap around? What holds it in place?
trachea and inferior portion of the larynx
pretracheal fascia
Name the two pairs of arteries which supply the thyroid gland.
superior thyroid areteries and inferior thyroid arteries
What do the superior thyroid arteries branch from?
first branch off the external carotid arteries
What do the inferior thyroid arteries branch from?
thyrocervical trunk
What is the occasional third vessel that supplies the thyroid? What does it branch from?
thyroid ima artery
directly off the aortic arch
What is the clinical significance of the thyroid ima artery?
its possible presence is one of the reasons emergency tracheotomies are not done more frequently below the isthmus of the thyroid gland
Name the three pairs of veins which drain blood from the thyroid.
superior, middle and inferior thyroid veins
What do the superior thyroid veins drain into? middle? and inferior?
superior-internal jugular
middle-internal jugular
inferior-R&L brachiocephalic veins
Lymph from the thyroid gland generally runs into what?
superior or inferior deep cervical lymph nodes, or paratracheal lymph nodes
What restricts blood flow to the thyroid gland?
sympathetic innervation by the postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior, middle and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia
What does PTH maintain?
calcium levels
How many parathyroid glands are there?
Where do the parathyroid glands lie with respect to the thyroid?
on the inner surface of the thyroid gland
Which arteries supply the parathyroid?
inferior thyroid arteries
What drains the parathyroid?
thyroid venous plexus
Lymph from the parathyroid gland flows into what?
paratracheal or deep cervical lymph nodes
Is the parathyroid gland neccessary for life? What can occur if it is removed
calcium and parathyroid extracts must be given to raise calcium levels, otherwise tetany and ultimately death will occur
What does the thyroid gland develop from?
a midline pharyngeal outpocketing at the site of the future foramen cecum
What does the thyroid gland develop between?
terberculum impar and copula
Name the important structures formed from pharyngeal outpocketings.
thyroid, tonsils, tube (eustachian), thymus, and parathyroid
The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is a remainder of what embryonic development?
thyroglossal duct
Where can ectopic thyroid tissue be found?
in the midline anywhere between the foramen cecum around the hyoid bone and down to the isthmus of the thyroid gland
What are the boundaries of the root of the neck?
1st rib, manubrium sterna and 1st thoracic vertebra
What does the anterior scalenus muscle insert onto?
1st rib
What artery runs posterior to the anterior scalenus muscle?
subclavian artery
Name the branch(es) of the medial subclavian artery.
vertebral artery, thyrocervical trunk and internal thoracic artery
Name the branches of the thyrocervial trunk.
inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery, suprascapular artery
Name the branch(es) of the posterior subclavian artery.
costocervical trunk
Name the branch(es) of the lateral subclavian artery.
dorsal scapular artery
What does the vertebral artey supply?
What branches from the inferior thyroid artery?
ascending cervical artery
What does the transverse cervical artery supply?
posterior triangle m.
What does the suprascapular artery travel to?
scapula m.
What do the internal thoracic artery go to?
anterior intercostal art
What does the costocervial trunch go to?
intercostal and deep cervical artery
What does the dorsal scapular artery go to?
scapula muscles
What runs anterior to the anterior scalenus muscle?
phrenic nerve, vagus, and subclavian vein
What runs posterior to the anterior scalenus muscle?
subclavian artery and brachial plexus
What are the three cervical sympathetic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk?
inferior middle, and superior cervical ganglia
Where do the inferior cervical ganglion lie? What do they wrap around?
at the 1st rib
vertebral artery
What are the inferior cervical ganglion a part of? What else is a part of it?
stellate ganglia
superior thorax sympathetic chain ganglia
Where do the middle cervical ganglion lie?
C6 on the inferior thyroid artery
Where do the superior cervical ganglion lie?