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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the functions of the nose.
respiration, olfaction, flitration of dust, humidification of inspired air, reception of secretions from paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal duct
What causes the greatest number of clinical problems with regards to the nose?
secretions from paranasal sinuses
What is the point of attachment of the nose to the forehead called (bridge)?
What is the tip of the nose called?
What is the part of the nose connecting the root and apex called?
dorsum nasi
What is the name of the part of the nose lying on both sides of the dorsum nasi?
What are the nostrils called? What binds them laterally and medially?
laterally by alae
medially be nasal septum
Which bones form the root or bridge of the nose? What do they articulate with?
nasal bones
articulate with maxilla, frontal and ethmoid bones
What forms much of the dorsum and lateral aspect of the nose?
lateral nasal cartilages
What cartilage is responsible for giving shape to the apex of the nose and holding the nares open?
greater alar cartilage
What is the unpaired midline cartilage of the nose called?
septal cartilage
What type of cartilage serves a minor role with regards to the nose?
accessory cartilages
The nasal cavity extends from the _____ anteriorly to the _____ or _____ posteriorly.
external nares
choanae or internal nares
The nasal cavity opens into the _____.
What divides the nasal cavity into two parts?
nasal septum
The anterior portion of the nasal cavity is the _____.
What lines the greatest part of the nasal cavity? What is present in this lining?
mucous membrane
mucous & serous glands
What are important in clearing the posterior 2/3 of the nasal cavity?
nasal cilia
Describe the upper portion of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. vestibule.
noncililated olfactory
vestibule is an area of transition from typical skin, with sweat, sebaceous glands, and hair, to respiratory mucosa
Name the bony components of the nasal septum.
perpendicular plate of ethmoid, vomer, nasal crests of maxilla & palatine bones
Name the cartilaginous component of the nasal septum.
cartilaginous septum
What does the cartilaginous septum of the nasal septum articulate with?
bony components posteriorly and inferiorly
What is the cartilaginous nasal septum continuous w/ anteriorly?
lateral nasal cartilages
What makes up the floor of the nasal cavity?
hard & soft palates
Which two bones contribue to the nasal cavity?
maxilla and palatine
Which bones form the roof of the nasal cavity (from anterior to posterior)?
nasal, frontal, ethmoidal and sphenoid
What makes up the middle part of the roof of the nasal septum?
cribriform plate
Which nerve enters the nasal cavity through a foramina of the cribriform plate?
olfactory (CNI)
Head trauma may result in shearing of the olfactory nerves as they pass through the cribriform plate. What can result?
anosmia, loss of the sense of smell
If the cribriform plate is fractued what can occur?
CSF rhinorrhea-leakage of CSF into the nose
What is the ridge formed by the lower edge of the lateral nasal cartilage called? What does it separate?
Limen nasi
separates vestibule from rest of nasal fossa & marks area of transition of epithelial types
What are the prominent features on lateral wall of the nasal cavity called?
conchae or turbinates
Describe the projection of the conchae.
project inferiorly and medially
Name the conchae of the nose. Which is the largest?
inferior, middle and superior
Inferior is largest
Which of the conchae is a separate bone?
inferior concha
What is under the middle concha?
goove called the semilunar hiatus, and a raised area called the ethmoidal bulba
Which bone is the semilunar hiatus and ethmoidal bulba part of?
ethmoid bone
Which bone is the superior concha a part of?
ethmoid bone
What is located between the superior concha and anterior surface of body of the sphenoid bone?
Sphenoethmoidal recess
Which sinuses drain into the sphenoethmoid recess?
spenoid sinus
What is the interval betwen the lateral wall and each of the overhanging conchae called?
What is located at the inferior meatus?
ostium of nasolacrimal ducts through which tears from the eyes drain to the nose
What is loacted at the middle meatus?
ethmoid bulla, uncinate process, semilunar hiatus, infundibulum and frontal recess
What is the prominent elevation under the middle meatus marking the porition of middle ethmoid air cells?
ehmoid bulla
What is the name of the sharp, bony process of ethmoid bone covered by mucous membrane?
uncinate process
Where does the uncinate process lie w/ respect to the ehmoid bulla?
inferor & anterior to bulla
What does the semilunar hiatus lie between?
uncinate process and ethmoid bulla
What does the semilunar hiatus receive?
anerior & middle ethmoidal air cells opening and ostium of maxillary sinus
What drains the frontal sinus?
What does the superior meauts contain?
posterior ethmoid air cells
If there is a supreme concha there will be a supremem meatus. What is contained here?
ostia of one or two of the posterior ethmoid air cells
What are the two major arteries that supply the nose?
facial and ophthalmic artery
The facial artery supplies the nose via what branches?
superior labial, angular and lateral nasal branches
The ophthalmic artery supplies the nose via what branches?
dorsal nasal branch off the anterior ethmoid artery
What are the two minor arteries that supply the nose?
nasal branch of ophthalmic A
infraorbital branch of maxillary A
Name the 8 external arteries of the nose.
facial, lateral nasal, angular, septal branch of superior branch of labial, superior labial, dorsal nasal branch of anterior ethmoid, nasal branch of ophthalmic, nasal branch of infraorbital
What are the two major artery sources that supply the nasal cavity?
sphenopalatine and ethmoidal arteries
What is the sphenopalatine artery a terminal branch of?
maxillary artery
Where does the sphenopalatine artery originate? What does it pass through?
o=pterygopalatine fossa
enters=nasal cavity by passing through spenopalatine foramen
What part of the nose does the sphenopalatine artery supply?
posterior portion of nasal cavity
Name the branches of the sphenopalatine artery.
posterior septal and posterior lateral branches
Which of the ethmoidal arteries is the largest? What does it supply?
anterior-supplies anterior-superior portion of nasal cavity
What two minor arteries supply the nasal cavity?
greater palatine artery and superior labial arteries
What do the greater palatine arteries that supply the nasal cavity pass through?
incisive foramina in anterior portion of hard palate
What is the greater palatine artery a branch of?
descending palatine artery which arises from the maxillary artery
What part of the nasal cavity does the superior labial arteries supply?
vestibule and lower anterior nasal septum
Name the five arteries that supply the nasal cavity.
posterior and anterior ethmoid, aphenopalatine, greater palatine, superior labial
What is a frequent site of nosebleeds?
Kiesselbach's or Little's area-superficial anastomotic network on nasal septum of vestibular area
What is the formal name for nosebleed?
Venous channels draining nasal cavity originate from what?
dense venous plexus lying within respiratory mucosa
Venous drainage of the nose is primarily via what veins? Do the veins draining this region have valves?
pterygoid plexus of veins, facial vein & superior ophthalmic vein
Why is there a potential transfer of pathogenic organisms from lateral surface and root of nose into the cavernous sinus, ie danger zone?
variations in body position & facial movement can result in flow of the facial vein into the ophthalmic veins & cavernous
What nerve innervates muscles of the external nose?
facial (CNVII)
What nerve innervates skin sensory of the external nose? Name the two divisions of this nerve that are primarily responsible?
trigeminal CNV
ophthalmic division, V1
maxillary division, V2
Trigeminal N->Maxillary division->_____
infraorbital nerve
Trigeminal N->ophthalmic division->_____ & _____
infratrochlear branches & external nasal branch of anterior ethmoidal N
What does the pterygopalatine fossa house?
nerves and vessels for the nose and mouth
Name the 4 principal sources of innervation for the nasal cavity.
olfactory, nasopalatine, medial & lateral internal nasal nerves,
The olfactory nerve enters the nasal cavity by passing through what? What does it supply?
cribriform plate of ethmoid
roof of cavity & immediately adjacent lateral & septal walls
What is the nasopalatine nerve a branch of?
maxillary division V2
What foramen does the nasopalatine nerve enter to get to the nasal cavity?
sphenopalatine foramen
What are the medial & lateral internal nasal nerves branches of?
anterior ethmoidal N
What does the lateral internal nasal nerve become? What does it supply?
external nasal nerve
lower dorsum of nose
Which artery does the nasopalatine N travel with?
sphenopalatine A
Which artery does the anterior ethmoidal nerve travel with?
anterior ethmoidal A
What does the infraorbial nerve supply?
vestibular area of nose
Parasympathetic innervation of nasal cavity is from post-ganglionic fibers of which ganglion?
pterygopalatine (sphenopalatine)
Preganglionic fibers of the nasal cavity come from what?
facial nerve
What is the function of postganglionic fibers of the nasal cavity?
vawsodilatory & secretory
Where do sympathetic fibers of the nose come from? Where do they synapse?
upper thoracic segments of spinal cord
synapse in superior cervical ganglion
Postganglionic fibers of the nose travel in what on their way to the pterygopalatine ganglion?
internal carotid plexus, deep petrosal N & nerve of pterygoid canal (Vidian's nerve)
What is the function of the sympathetic fibers of the nose?
Name the four paranasal sinuses. When do these sinuses start to develop?
frontal, ethmoidal, maxillary & sphenoidal
3rd-4th month in utero
____&____ sinuses are present as small cavities at birth. ____&____ sinuses develop during infancy.
maxillary & ethmoid
frontal & spenoid
What type of mucosa are sinuses lined with?
respiratory mucosa
Describe the difference between respiratory and nasal mucosa.
respiratory mucosa is less vascular & thinner than the naswal cavity
Drainage of the frontal sinus is via which duct? What does this duct open into?
frontonasal duct
What innervates the frontal sinus? Where is pain often referred? Why?
supraorbital nerve
this nerve also suplies skin of the forhead & scalp
What separates the ethmoid sinuses from the orbits?
lamina papyracea
The ethmoid sinuses are closely related to which nerve?
Drainage of the anterior and middle ethmoid cells is into what?
middle meatus (infundibulum, hiatus semilunaris, ethmoidal bulla) and posterior ethmoid group draining into superior meatus
What innervates the ethomoid sinuses?
branches of the nasociliary nerve V1
Name 6 things close to the sphenoid sinuses.
internal carotid artery, cavernous sinus, maxillary nerve, hypophysis, optic N, nerve of pterygoid canal
What do the sphenoid sinuses drain to?
sphenoethmoidal recess
Which of the sinuses is the largest?
Name the anatomical relationships of the maxillary sinus.
floor of orbit & infraorbital N and vessels, lateral wall of nasal cavity, teeth & their vascular & nerve supply
What does the maxillary sinus drain into?
hiatus semilunaris
What innervates the maxillar y sinus?
infraorbital nerve
Which artery(s) supply the frontal sinus?
supraorbital A
Which artery(s) supply the ethmoid sinuses?
anterior & posterior ethmoid arteries and sphsphenopalatine A
Which artery(s) supply the spenoid sinuses?
posterior ethmoid artery and sphenopalatine artery
Which artery(s) supply the maxillary sinuses?
sphenopalatine artery and infraorbital artery and alveolar artery
What do frontal sinus drain into?
superior ophthalmic vein through diploic veins into dural venous sinuses