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18 Cards in this Set

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Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid, iodine deficiency.
Rickets
Vitamin D deficiency inhibits actions of calcitonin, calcium is absorbed from bones, causing abnormal growth.
Hyperthyroidism
Excess TH. Rapid heartbeat, high BP, weight loss.
Hypothyroidism
Low TH. Weight gain, sluggish metabolism.

Disorders usually genetic, can be from autoimmunity or inflammation.
Gigantism
Proportionally normal but excessively large. Excessive growth at epiphyseal plates of long bones.
Dwarfism
Underproduction of GH, proportionally normal but excessively short. Can be genetic or caused by a tumor or injury to pituitary gland.
Acromegaly
Overproduction of GH in adulthood, abnormal growth of bone, cartilage, and connective tissues.
Hyperparathyroidism
Excess PTH causes too much calcium to be removed from the bone. Weakened bones, causes kidney stones from excess calcium, affects nerves and muscle contractions.
Cortisol
Shuts down inflammation and speeds recovery. Cortisol drugs (cortisone) prescribed as meds for patients with asthma and inflammatory disorders.
Body is stressed and losing glucose rapidly
Glucose concentrations drop. Cortisol is released by adrenals, promoting breakdown of muscle proteins into glucose. Reduces rate of glucose use by muscles.
Chronic stress
Causes release of cortisol and epinephrine, can shock body by altering normal blood glucose concentrations. Linked to many diseases, as cardiovascular disease, depression, immunosuppression.
Pineal Gland
Embedded in the brain, secretes melatonin when light is low or absent, acts on neurons that lower body temp. Influences body clock.
SAD
Seasonal affective disorder, winter blues. Biological clock is out of sync with shortness of days, daytime melatonin production. Treated by exposure to intense light.
Pancreas
Alpha cells: release glucagon, causing liver to break glycogen into glucose. (blood glucose concentrations increase.)
Beta cells: secrete insulin, increasing absorption of glucose by cells such as muscle and adipose. (blood glucose levels drop)

Together, regulate blood sugar.
Diabetes mellitus
Type 1
Autoimmune disorder, WBCs destroy pancreas cells. Caused by defective genes, lysogenic viruses, onset usually in childhood or juvenile.

Type 2
Insulin production decreases with age. Excessive intake of simple sugars may cause glucose intolerance.
Ketoacidosis
Disruption of blood pH.
Low insulin causes high glucose levels in blood that is not absorbed by cells.
Excess glucose shunted to kidneys.
Water-solute balance altered, kidneys produce excessive urine.
Auto-metabolic pathway: cells metabolize their structural fats and proteins as alternate sources of energy.
Ketones are acidic products, altering blood pH. Life-threatening.
Rebound hyperglycemia
Simple carb consumption elevates glucose levels and insulin production. Result: hyperglycemia, glucose rapidly absorbed by body tissues. Emotional mood swings: excited, nervous, hyperactive.
Hypoglycemia: High insulin causes glucose concentration to drop suddenly. Result: irritable, depressed, headaches.
Insulin shock
Can develop from hypoglycemia, soon plasma glucose concentrations are dangerously low, brain is starved for glucose.