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41 Cards in this Set

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Motor innervation of muscles derviced from the branchial arches, related to origin from the nucleus ambigous in the CNS are ___.
SVE or Branchial Visceral Efferent
Motor innervation of muscles derived from somites are ___.
GSE
Fibers which carry taste info from the anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 of tongue are ___.
SVA
Fibers which carry general sensory info ie from the surface of the head are ___.
GSA
What is the extreme cranial end of the foregut known as?
pharangeal gut or pharynx
In early development what is the pharynx in direct contact with?
the ectoderm at the floor of the stomodeum
What does the contact of the ectoderm with the endoderm of the foregut form?
oro/buccopharyngeal membrane
When does the buccopharyngeal membrane break down? What does this allow to connect?
4th week of development
primitive oral cavity w/ foregut
What are pharyngeal pouches? When do they form?
outpocketings from the endoderm of the pharynx
4th or 5th week
What forms simultaneously with the pouches?
pharyngeal grooves (clefts)
What are pharyngeal puches derived from? grooves?
pounches-endoderm
grooves-ectoderm
Do the clefts and puches communicate in humans?
no, they approach each other, but they do not communicate as they do in fish where gills are formed
What separates the cleft from the pouch in human embryos?
pharyngeal membrane
The formation of clefts and grooves divides what?
the mesenchyme on each side of embryo into six vertical bars called pharyngeal arches
In humans, which arch degenerates?
5
What does each arch contain?
artery
cartilaginous bar
muscle
cranial nerve
Blood vessels of the head and neck are derived primarily from which aortic arch?
3, but also 4 and 6
Mesenchyme of each arch is derived from what?
neural crest and lateral plate and paraxial mesoderm
The neural crest derived mesencyme forms the cartilage of each arch and will be responsible for what else?
formation of the skeletal structures of the head and neck
Mesenchyme derived from the lateral plate and paraxial mesoderm is responsible for formation of what?
musculature of the face and neck as well as the dermis of the skin
The musculature of the arches arises from ____.
somitomeres
Which nerve supplies the first arch?
mandibular division of the fifth CN, some additional supply through the chorda tympani (a branch of VII)
Which neve supplies the second arch?
CN VII
Which nerve supplies the muscles of the third arch?
CN IX
Which CN supply arches 4-6?
CN X and XI
The fourth arch is innervated by what?
superior laryngeal branch of the vagus
The 6th arch is innervated by what?
recurrent laryngeal nerve
The nerves which innervate the branchial arch musculature carry SVE fibers to the ____.
nucleus ambiguos
What two processes are formed from the mesenchyme in the first pharyngeal arch?
a short maxillary process and a long mandibular process
The maxillary process expands _____ into the region below the eye.
forward (anteriorly and medially)
The cartilage of the maxillary process retrogresses with the maxilla, zygoma, palatine, and squamous portion of the temporal bone forming _____.
intramembranously
The mandibular process of the 1st pharyngeal arch is transformed into ____.
Meckel's Cartilage
All put two fragments of the mandibular process retrogress except which two fragments?
malleus and incus
The perichondrium of the Meckel's cartilage condenses to form what?
anteior ligament of the malleus and sphenomandibular ligament
The mandible forms ____.
intramembranously
What does the musculature of the 1st arch consist of?
muscles of mastication, anterior belly of the digastric, mylohyoid, tensor tympani
What nerve innervates the first arch?
mandibular branch of V
In the second pharyngeal arch, the cartilaginous bar formed is known as what?
Reichert's Cartilage
What does the dorsal part of the 2nd pharyngeal arch form?
stapes, styloid process of the temporal bone
What does the intermediate portion of cartilage of the 2nd pharyngeal arch form?
stylohyoid ligament and ventral part of the lesser cornu and the superior part of the body of the hyoid bone
Name the muscles of the second arch.
stapedius, stylohyoid, posterior belly of the digastric, muscles of facial expression (including buccinator), the auricular muscles, the occipitofrontalis, and the platysma