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53 Cards in this Set

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vincristine vs paclitaxel
vincristine prevents microtubule formation, paclitaxel prevents microtuble degradation
eqn for half life
halflife= 0.7Vd/CL
tx for AML
"caramel": c-ara AML (cytarabine) + daunorubicin
omalizumab
monoclonal Ab that binds to IgE -- used in asthma that is not well controlled by steroids
infliximab
binds TNF-alpha; used in crohn's and RA
ipratropium
muscaranic antagonist with minimal systemic side effects; usedin asthma (esp with COPD)
theophylline
inhibits PDE --> increases cAMP; narrow TI (cardiotox, neurotox)
antineoplastics with cardiac tox
doxorubicin, daunorubicin
antineoplastics with pulm fibrosis
bleomycin, busulfan
antineoplastics with CNS Tox (periph neuropathy, ileus)
vincristine
antineoplastics with renal and acoustic nerve tox
cisplatin
tx of klebsiella
cephalosporins
tx for legionella
erythromycin ("a wreath on legionairre's grave")
tx for anaerobes above the diaphragm
clindamycin
tx for anaerobes below the diaphragm
metronidazole
tx of oral candidiasis
"nystatin, swish and swallow" + fluconazole
nystatin
antifungal, punches holes in ergosterol (like amphoteicin-B); too toxic for IV, but not absorbed thru GI; main use: CANDIDIASIS
penicillin cross allergy
amoxicillin, cephalosporins
cyclosporine + {tacrolimus | sacrolimus}
NEPHROTOXICITY! Additive toxicity, so don’t give within 24 hrs
OC metabolism
p450
avoid OCs with
p450 inducers (Quinidine, Barbiturates, Phenytoin, Rifampin, Griseofulvin, Carbemazepine)
cyclophosphamide mech, use
alkylating agent, causes dna cross-linking; used for non-hodgkin's lymphoma (C in CHOP)
6-mp mech
inhibits purine synthesis (6-mercaptoPURINE), requires conversion by HGPRT
vinca alkaloids
bind tubuilin, prevent polymerization (unlike taxol: prevents degradation)
dna intercalators
bleomycin, doxorobucin
6-MP contraindicated with what drug?
allopurinol --| HGPRT, which is needed by 6-MP for conversion to active metabolite; allopurinol causes increased 6-MP levels --> hepatotox
Chvostek sign
tapping face in front of ear elicits tetany --> hypocalcemia
trousseau sign
BP cuff occludes brachial artery --> carpal spasm (indicates hypocalcemia)
ergocalciferol
vit d2 (used for hypocalcemia)
cyclosporine mech
ihbits production and release of IL-2 by binding cyclophillin, inhibtiting calcineurin, thereby inhibiting NF-kB activity
bethanechol
muscarinic agonists (like methacholine, carbachol, pilocarpine) -- Bethnechol stimulates Bowel and Bladder; AChE resistant
glaucoma drugs
PETA: Pilocarpine (ACh agonist), Echothiophate (AChEi), Timilol (Beta blocker), Acetazolamide (CA inhibitor)
ACh agonist and AChEi combinations
Carbechol/Pilocarpine + Echothiophate/Physostigmine for Glaucoma; Bethanechol + Neostigmine for post-surgical/neurological ileus or urinary retention
tx for myasthenia gravis
AChEi (neostigmine, pyridostigmine)
physostigmine
AChEi used for glaucoma; has good CNS penetrance, so also used for atropine overdose
benztropine
Centrally acting anticholinergic --> used for parkinsons
scopolamine
Centrally acting anticholinergic --> used for motion sickness
dx of myasthenia gravis
edrophonium: extremely short acting AChEi (10mins), see if it relieves sx
nervous control of ciliary muscle
cholinergic (carbechol/pilocarpine = cholinomimetics, activate ciliary muscle --> relieve openangle glaucoma; also, atropine causes ciliary muscle paralysis --> cycloplegia:no accomodation)
NE selectivity
a1,a2 > B1
Epi selectivity
B1,B2 (low dose) > a1,a2 (high dose)
Dopamine Selectivity
D1=D2>B>a AGONIST
dobutamine
B1>B2 (no alpha activity) AGONIST
isoproterenol
B1=B2 AGONIST
phenylephrine
a1>a2 AGONIST
terbutaline
like albuterol, b2>b1 AGONIST; used to reduce contractions in premature labor
drug used for hypertension with renal disease
a2 agonist (clonidine or alpha-methyldopa) b/c no decrease in blood flow to renal vasculature
adrenergic agent used in pregnancy-induced hypertension
alpha-methyldopa
nonselective alpha antagonists (2) + uses and differences
phenoxybenzmine (irreversible) and phentolamine (reversible); both used for pheo
alpha1 blocker
prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin -- used for BPH urinary retention or HTN
alpha2 blocker
mirtazapine: anti-depressent; causes weight gain (inc appetite, inc cholesterol)
drug of choice for shock
Dopamine: inc BP via B1/a1, while D1 and D2 also vasoconstricts (but vasodilates renal vasculature, preserves renal function)
beta blockers used in SVT
propanolol, esmolol