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26 Cards in this Set

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Injury to the ethmoid bone:

The ethmoid bone is easily injured by a sharp upward blow to the nose, such as a person might suffer by striking an automobile dashboard in a collision

Force of the blow can drive bone fragments through the ___ into the meninges or brain tissue

This can cause leakage of ___ into the nasal cavity and maybe followed by the spread of ___ from the nasal cavity to the brain
-cribriform plate
-cerebrospinal fluid
-infection
___ are relatively sharp ridges and a blow here, such as during a boxing match or fist fight, may lacerate the skin and cause bleeding. Tissue fluid and blood can accumulate around the orbit and into the thin skin of the eyelids leaving a “black eye” (___).
-Superciliary arches
-echymosis
___ is the premature closure of the cranial sutures.
It results in cranial malformations (1 per 2000 births)
-Craniosynostosis
Pterion junction of frontal, parietal, temporal bones, and greater wing of the sphenoid on the lateral aspect of the skull
Clinical significance: It is a thin part of the calvaria overlying the ___
anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery
Fracture of the pterion can result in rupture of the ___ causing an extradural “epidural” ___
Classically described as ___
-anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery
-hematoma
-“lens shaped”, seen in CT

s. 31, 32
Epidural hematoma:
A fracture at the ___ (1), the thinnest part of the calvaria may lacerate the ___ (2) causing a epidural hematoma.
The hematoma may compress the lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere and result in herniation of the medial part of the ___ (3) through the tentorial notch of dura. This in turn compresses the ___ (4) causing all or some of these [four] signs: ___.
These neurological signs may occur several hours after the initial injury, as blood accumulates to the point at which pressure on the brain reaches a critical value.
1) pterion
2) anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery
3) temporal lobe
4) brainstem
5) limb weakness, dilated pupil from compression of the oculomotor nerve, and deterioration of cardiovascular and respiratory function
What bones make up the Anterior Cranial Fossa, the shallowest of the 3 fossae?
Made up of frontal bone, ethmoid, sphenoid (body and lesser wings)
Middle Cranial Fossa:
Butterfly shaped
Contains the ___
sella turcica [*turkish saddle, hypophysial fossa]
Posterior Cranial Fossa:
Largest and deepest, comprised mostly of ___ bone
Holds ___
-occipital
-cerebellum, pons, and medulla
Anterior cranial fossa foramina:
(3)
Foramen cecum
Olfactory foramina of cribriform plate
Anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina (red ovals)
s. 37
Middle cranial fossa foramina:
(8)
Optical canal
Superior orbital fissure
Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Carotid canal
Hiatuses and canals for the greater and lesser petrosal nerves
Foramen lacerum (only a foramen in a preserved skull, in life it is filled with cartilage)
s. 38
Posterior cranial fossa foramina [5]
Internal acoustic meatus
Jugular foramen
Hypoglossal canal
Foramen magnum
Condylar canal
*Foramina and Contents:
Optic canal [2]
Optic nerve (CN II)
Ophthalmic artery
*Foramina and Contents:
Superior orbital fissure [5]
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
Abducent nerve (CN VI)
Superior ophthalmic vein
*Foramina and Contents:
Foramen rotundum
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
*Foramina and Contents:
Foramen ovale [3]
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Accessory meningeal artery
Lesser petrosal nerve
*Foramina and Contents:
Foramen spinosum [2]
Middle meningeal artery and vein
Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve
*Foramina and Contents:
Carotid canal
Internal carotid artery with internal carotid nerve plexus (sympathetic plexus)
*Foramina and Contents:
Foramen lacerum
It is filled with cartilage. The greater petrosal nerve passes horizontally across foramen lacerum and traverses the cartilage.
*Foramina and Contents:
Internal acoustic meatus [3]
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
Labyrinthine artery
*Foramina and Contents:
Jugular foramen [6]
Inferior petrosal sinus
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Vagus nerve (CN X)
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Sigmoid sinus
Posterior meningeal artery
*Foramina and Contents:
Hypoglossal canal
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
*Foramina and Contents:
Foramen magnum [5]
Medulla oblongata
Meninges
Vertebral arteries
Meningeal branches of vertebral arteries
Spinal roots of accessory nerves
Incisive foramen transmits the ___.
It is posterior to the central incisor teeth
nasopalatine nerve
Stylomastoid foramen transmits the ___
-facial nerve
[bt styloid process and mastoid process of temporal bone]
Palpation of fontanelles:

Palpation of the fontanelles during infancy, especially the anterior and posterior, enables physicians to determine:
Progress of growth of frontal and parietal bones

Degree of hydration
a depressed fontanelle indicates ___ and can occur after a bought of severe fever or diarrhea

Level of intracranial pressure
bulging fontanelle indicates ___
-dehydration
-increased pressure on the brain