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24 Cards in this Set

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7th Century
advent of Islam, spreading of Islam through the Mediterranean to India
8th century
: Muslim armies conquer Spain (711) along with parts of southern France (brief period) and southern Italy (Muslims driven out from Sicily in the 11th century)
11th century
Crusades are launched; attempt to drive out Islam out of the Holy Land

Seljuk Turks rise to power and begin to conquer Byzantine territory
12th century
Christian armies from the West began driving Muslims back
1299
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
14th century
Beginning of the Renaissance
15th century
Ottoman Turks expand their Islamic empire into the modern Balkan states in southeastern Europe, including Bosnia and Albania (many conversions to Islam). Ottoman forces occupy the Balkan Peninsula.
1453
Ottomans conquer Constantinople. End of the Byzantine Empire
1492
1492 Spanish Inquisition; campaign to drive Muslims and Jews out of western Europe. Muslims to flee to North Africa, few Muslims remain in western Europe
1529
First Ottoman siege of Vienna
1683
Ottomans defeated at the gates of Vienna.
19th century
semi-colonization of Egypt under French and British rule

British colonization of India
1918
Ottoman Empire is defeated and occupied by European forces
post 1945
Under communist rule in the Balkans, Islam is suppressed
1947
partition and independence of Pakistan and India; postcolonial migration to Great Britain
1961
Berlin Wall is built; labor shortage; West German government invites Turkish citizens to work as so-called guest workers.
1962
Algeria gains independence from French colonial rule; postcolonial migration from Algeria to France
1979
Islamic Revolution in Iran
1989
Khomeini declares a fatwa against Rushdie

Berlin wall falls, followed by the collapse of the Soviet Block
1991
war breaks out in Yugoslavia, triggering religious fundamentalism
1990s
headscarf debate in France influences policies in other Western European countries
2001
9/11 attack on World Trade Center, followed by war in Iraq and Afghanistan
2009
banning of minarets in Switzerland
2010
banning of burqa in Belgium and France