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52 Cards in this Set

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What role to proximal processes play in the individual's development?
Examples
Interactions in the child's immediate environment aid development, if they are regular and consistent over a period of time. they predict dev'tl outcomes, and reduce or buffer against env't.
ex. learning language, group or solitary play, studying, athletic activities, performing complex tasks.
How does Bronfrenbrenner conceptualize the ecological environment?
a set of nested structures each inside the other - like a set of Russian dolls.
How do characteristics of the person influence the interactions between the individual and the environment?
demand resources- gender, age, emotional state, intelligence, social network.
force characteristics - persistence, initiative, temperament
proximal processes.
microsystem
most basic level, immediate surroundings. relationships, social roles and their expectations, activities. (daughter, students, reading, cooperate at school)
Proximal
mesosystem
linkages between 2 or more microsystems
family and school
proximal
exosystem
Indirect influences
parents workplace
macrosystem
patter of other systems, culture, belief system, life-style
chronosystem
change or consistency over time.
ex. great depression
proximal processes
the primary mechanisms producing human development. Reciprocal person-environment interactions with people, objects, and symbols.
force characteristics
behavioral dispositions that invite or disrupt proximal processes.
ex. curiosity, responsiveness, explosiveness, distractability, unresponsiveness
resource characteristics
biopsychological liabilities/assets that influence the ability to engage in proximal processes.
ex. intellectual abilities, knowledge, skills, genetic defects, physical handicaps, illness
demand characteristics
traits that invite or discourage reactions from the social environment
ex. age, gender, physical appearance.
normative age-graded influences
biological and environmental determinates correlated with age.
typical to most people, contribute to similarities
ex. maturational events, socialization events
normative history-graded influences
biological and environmental determinents correlated with time
large scale socio-historical conditions and changes experienced over a lifetime.
shared by members of a birth cohort
contributes to differences of people in different cohorts
- historical events, technological changes, societal changes.
ex. wars, epidemics, societal roles, education system
non-normative life-events influences
events that differ in cluster, timing, and durations.
less predicatable, less commonly occurring
ex. illness, divorce, promotion, death of a spouse
Elder
What are the four principles of life-course theory?
4 principles:
1. Interplay of human lives and development with changing times and places
2. Timing of lives
3. Interdependence of human lives, including the relation between social and developmental trajectories
4. Human agency in choice-making decisions.

3 Dimensions
life/ontogenetic time
family time
historical time
Three types of time-related influences on development from the Life-Span and Life course theories
Individual (ontogenetic) time (age -graded) similarities
Historical time (history-graded) similarities to birth cohort only
Life events and transitions (non-normative) differences
timing of lives
can be normative or non-normative
ex. early or late puberty
normative will contribute to similarities
According to Rogroff, why is it problematic to take a categorical approach to culture. 3 specific problems
1. variability- variations within nations, generations, among themselves, sensitive to own variations, but hold stereotypical views of "the other"
2. overlap- members may participate in more than one community
3. subgroups - very numerous can be individualized.
How does a focus on individuals participation in cultural communities help to alleviate problems with the categorical approach?
members can participate in a community without being a member, and vise versa. people can participate in multiple, overlapping communities.
Gives a more fluid picture of someone's culture.
Key assumptions of Vygotsky's sociocultural-historical theory
Individual development must be undestood in context
ZPD
cultural tools are inherited and transformed. processes are mutually constituting each other
Criteria to determine culture
shared characteristics:
-physical/material: food, clothing, art, literature
- symbolic: language, institutions
-behavioral: norms, roles, costumes, practices
-subjective - beliefs, values attitudes
Transmission across generations
What are some limitations of Bronfrenbrenners macrosystem veiw of culture and development?
Individual and culture are separate
- culture is at a distance from the individual, and doesn't directly influence
How does Rogoff's "transformation of participation" view differ from Bronfrenbrenner's macrosystem view
Development is a process of changing participation in sociocultural activities of a community
How can we integrate Bronfrenbrenner's concepts with Rogoffs participation view
- culture structures and organizes our ecological context
-cultural processes occur in immediate environments, proximal processes are cultural.
-Individual development and cultural processes are “mutually constituting.”
categorical approach to culture
single category based on race, ethnicity, or nationality
the "box" problem
using one single box or category to define your culture
- assumes similarity among members
- assumes differences between members of different categories
-assumes that category reveal information about shared cultural characteristics
What arguments have been raised by social scientists regarding the value of insider/outsider perspectives?
What is Rogoff's position on the matter?
Is insider or outside more trustworthy? Which has exclusive access?
Rogoff: Insiders do not have the real meaning, opinions vary. Insiders don't notice their own practices, and may participate in several communities. There are blurred boundaries. Differences in perspective are necessary for understanding.
What are the challenges faced by "outside" researchers?
Challenges to insiders?
outsiders- encounter people's reactions to their presence, unfamiliarity, limited understanding, anxiety, restricted access.
insiders: people always function in a sociocultural context - social identity, gender, martial status. Unlikely to have reflected on phenomena that would interest an outsider
emic approach
represent cultural insider's perspective. Observation and participation of activities
cultural relative (culture specific)
long-term, qualitative, avoid imposing researcher bias,
observation of daily life
imposed etic
outsider persepecitve. general statements about human functioning and imposes an understanding. Adapt theories to community.
cross-cultural comparisons, standard measures, multiple settings, cultural universalism
derived etic
adapt measures to fit perspective of participants, assumes that culture contributes to both similarities and differneces in development (etic and emic)
1. Imposed etic - apply and test current theory and methods to other cultures, based on what you know from own culture.
2. Emic- explore and discover new aspects of phenomena in other cultures
3. Derived etic - integrate what is learned, modify theories and interpretation
Japanese preschool - guess about boy's behavior, observe, get intepretations, modify understanding
ethnography
observation or interviews about daily life
vygotsky's framework for understanding the innterrelationship of the individual, cultural, and species development
levels are inseparable. Biological development works with cultural institutions and practices that characterize humanity
cultural inventions shape biological characteritics and vice versa
Cesarean birth
Infant breathing and co-sleeping
Biological preparation of gender differences
differences in reproductive roles. Women more investment to produce children. Competition in males - unevenness of skills among males
gender role training
model of gender roles in everyday life.
gender related activities
discouragement from gender inappropriate activities
biological preparation and gender role training are the same processes viewed in different time frames - explain
biological preparedness - phylogenetic development
GR- microgenetic and ontogenetic time frame
Explains how evolutionary and social learning theory are different: time frames
prepared learning
genes and inborn processes that prepare them for joining human life
- balancing on 2 feet
- using objects as tools
- attract care of addults
long infancy
distal explanantions
causes linked to evoultionary past
proximal explanations
causes linked to immediate environment
Matsumoto and Juang. How does culture contribute to differences in self-concept and behavior?
culture shapes self-concept and organizes psychological traits.
independent construal of self
self as a separate entity, assertion, unique, promote personal goals. Focuses on attributes, intelligence, personality, goals.
interdependent construal of self
fundamental connectedness of human beings, adujst to group, read others minds, be sympathetics, occupy/play assisned roles. SE depends on the fit of the relationships. Internal attributes less salient
Consequences of self-construals
perception
a. self-perceptions - Independent - more salient, abstract, personality
interdependent; contextual, based on relationships and social roles, group memberships
Consequences of self-construals
social explanation
ind - internal attributes for behavior FAE
int - situational forces
Consequences of self-construals
achievement motivation
ind- individual sucess
int- broader social goals, achieve for the sake of others
Consequences of self-construals
self-enhancement
ind- self-serving bias - take credit for good deeds, see self as better than average
int- see self as average. success is due to luck, fail is due to insufficient ability
How has the dimension of I-C been used to explain cultural variation in groups and individuals?
it represents cultural differences
group level - social norms, values, conventions and rules
individual level - self-other realtions, degree of separteness and connectednesses
Individualism
loose ties with others
personal goals take precedence
strong initiative, responsiblitiy, self-sufficiency, freedom of choice, right to privacy
collectivism
cohesive in-groups
protection in exchange for loyalty
emphasizes group solidarity, duties and obligations.
hierarchical roles based on ascribed traits
Criticisms of I-C
alternative views
viewed as a single dichotomous either/or dimension
I and C exist in all cultures,
variation withing culture, situational variation
alternative - 2 dimensions, multiple forms