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63 Cards in this Set

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What key functions are served by children's friendships? How do these functions differ accross development?
Provide support, SE enhancement, postive self-evaluation, emotional security, affection and opportunities for disclosure, validation of interests, hopes and feers, informational assistance. Becomes more intimiate and more emotionally focused with age.
In what ways to friends tend to be similiar to each other?
age, gender, similiar in observable charactersitcs, behaviors, achievement, interests, attitudes.
How do children's interactions with friends differ from non-friends?
How do these differences change over development?
More talking, task orientation, cooperation, positive affect, effective conflict management.
Distinctions between friends and non-friends are very strong by adolescence.
What contradictory findings have emerged from research on conflict and conflict resolution between friends?
There is more confict with friends, more negative affect and guilty coercion, but more negotiation and disengagement, reach equitable outcomes
What does reserach show with respect to friendship and children's adjustment? How do these associations vary based on the stability and quality of the friendship?
Friendless children show internalizing difficulties and peer victimization. This predicts adult self-worth. Having a friend promotes + adjustment, protects against victimization. High quality, stable friendships = better leadership across transition and + psychological well-being
Who do the friendships of shy/withdrawn and aggressive children come to others with respect to prevalence, stability and quality?
Same prevelance, and stability. Likely to have a stable best friend, but lower quality because form relationships with similar peers
What behavioral characteristics are associated with popular, perceived popular and controversial?
popular: pro-social, intiate and maintain relationships, asertive, consider frame of reference of ongoing group - fit- in and respond to others.
perceived popular: physical and relational aggression, sense of humor, academic competence, athletic, attractive, stylish/wealthy
controversial: combination of +/- behaviors
neglected: less socialble, less aggressive, shy, withdrawn, interact less with peers, unstable, not very distinctive
aggression: instrumental, bullying, relation: manipulate group aceptance and damage others social standing
withdrawn: anxious
What does the research show about rejected children's self-perceptions and feelings about the self?
poor percieved social competency, more negative self-concept, withdrawn, self-defeating attributions.
aggresseive: overestimate social competence and peer acceptance
peer rejection and externalizing behavior problems/ internalizing problems
Early rejection predicts externalizing problems in adolescence, even when controlling for stability of externalizing problems over age period. Agression grows over time, leads to more negative information-processing.
anxious- withdraws leading to internalizing problems, low SE, anxiety, depression
Girls vs. boys
play styles
boys: physical, aggressive, dominate space
girls: take turns, cooperate, domestic, peripherary space
Girls vs. boys
Boys more likely to to break rules in gorups, use "naughty" words
Girls vs. boys
dominance patterns
Boys: charcteristic of groups, establish quickly through rough and tumble play. Once established, aggression lessons. Boys like the dominant one
Girls: dislike the dominant one
Girls vs. boys
girls: more equal, take turns, agree, respond, talk about emotions, especially fear, disclose.
aggression is manipulating relationships, exclusion, gossip
Girls vs. boys
speech styles
boys: more non-word sounds, interrupt with better story, direct commands
girls: cooperative, don't like showing off
girls vs. boys
boys: more conflict, disagree more, physical
girls: "yes, but...", nice while pursuing own desires, less direct
Why gender segregation in children's groups?
1. compatible play styles: girls don't like rough and tumble
2. ability to influence the other sex: girls increasingly unable to influence boys, use indirect strategies, but can influence girls.
3. Knowledge of own gender- 2.5 years : able to label and more likely to play with same sex
4. knowing and prefering gender sterotyped activties: believe it is appropriate
Cross cultural variations on gender group patterns
assertiveness: valued more for chinese girls than American girls, yet less valued for chinese boys than american boys
what is borderwork, how does in maintain segregation?
teasing and chasing between groups of boys and girls
budding heterosexuality: girls talk about who likes who, but boys don't
boys maintain boundaries, have more power, higher status, in-groups
schooling as a critical period
school entry is a critical period in development, it mediates the long-term effects of preschool.
new social contexts, must reconfigure roles, develop patterns of learning.
Family reliquishes control to the school
operational thinking, cognitive growth, receptive to learning, construct self-images as students
School tracking, retention, special ed
consequences follow grouping: affect amount and type of instructions, view of parents, lower ranked kids get lower grades
retention: kept from age-mates
How do parent and teacher expectations shape a child's early school perfromance?
believe smarter, do better, espeically in middle class
1st grade sets the standard,
teaher's higher expectations - higher standards
4 pathways of how preschool influences the child's elementary school performance
- easing the transition to first grade, better scores
- prevening placement in low tracks - additional learning opportunities.
- rasing the expectations
- providing the support of peers- cooperative players
Impact of ASPs on academic, social/emotional, health and wellness, and prevention outcomes
academic: higher test sscores in reading and math, better attendance, less suspensions, less dropout, improved hw completions
social-emotional: decreased behavioral problems, initiative, self-confidence, Se, lower depression/anxiety, communication and social skills.
health: better food, physical activity, knowledge of nutrition, reduced BMI, better body image
prevention: avoidence of drug/alcohol, knowledge of safe sex, less delinquence/violence.
Factors for success of AsP
1) access to and sustained participation: higher director salaries, advanced credentials, interests, needs, schedules
2) quality programming and staffing
3) promoting strong partnerships with school, family, commmunity
Social competence
a balance between studen'ts acievement of + outome goals for themselves and adherence to school-specific expectations for behavior
socially competent student
personal goals and those sanctioned by others. smooth funtioning social groups, social integration, social approval, emotional well-being, conflict resolution
Why is it important to consider both personal goals and social goals?
the two are not always compatible
Structural features of k-12 schools on student outcomes
childcare: time spent is related to risk of inseure attachment only if mother's sensitivity is low
problem beahvior: not a clincial levels
strength of school effects is typically small except when comparing extremes
How are student outcomes affected by school climate
sense of community and belonging modestly related to social, behavioral, and academic outcomes. More + soical skills, less delinquency
How are student outcomes affected by structural changes associated with the transition of middle and high school?
more students, new instructional styles.
HS- greater focus on academic accomplishments, new peer groups, environment more impersonal. Teachers less caring, more focused on high grades, competition, extracurricular
How do teachers influence behavioral competencies through structuring of cooperative learning activities?
promote social goals of cooperation, responsibility to the group, achieve common objectives. Stronger levels of social satisfaction.
differencial expecations: lower for minority and low-achieving students, self-fulfilling prophecy
How do peers contribute to school competence?
provide information, advice, model behavior, experience that facilitates learning social expectations for behavior. Provide info about themselves: social and self-efficacy skills. Determine if things are important/fun
How do warm, responsive teacher-child and peer relationships help support school social competence of children and adolescents?
promote personal growth and adaptive social functioning, academic competence
more imporant for younger kids
closeness, conflict, dependency.
preschool: secure relationships can compensate for insecure ones, less aggression and withdrawn behavior
elementary: negative relationship with teacher leads to externalizing behaviors
adolescence: teachers that are emotionally supportive and caring, + motivation outcomes, behave prosocially and responsibly, predricts drop out
close, mutural, voluntary dyadic relationship
sibs. vs. friends
warmth and closeness
in early childhood, siblings are closer
in adolescence, friendships are closer
sibs vs. friends
relative status/power
friends - horizontal, symmetrical
siblings - vertical, assymmetrical
sibs vs. friends
friends - conflicts are resolved more readily and effectively than sibling conflicts
- rate of conflict is similar for siblings and friends
sibs vs. friends
siblings - often involuntary
friends - voluntary
3 pathways friends influence children's development
1) Having friends: selection effects: child characteristics, correlated with peer aceptance. having friends indicates well-being, protective against rejection and victimization
2) Who one's friends are: similar demographics, mututal socialization - makes kids more similar, advantages to having well-adjusted friends for youth at risk, problematic friends leads to externalizing, aggressive, depressive
3) Friendship quality: supportive> + school outcomes, improved mood and well-being. negative, conflict, delinquency, disruptive behavior, depressive feelings.
excessive discussion of personal problems
how do sociometric assessment methods identify status?
what are the limitations of the methods?
peers evaluate one another's likability - through peer nomination (+ and -)
limitations: ethical issues, have to get all parents permission, doesnt address behavioral rejection, used in limited context - school, variations in correlates of sociometric status; gender, ethnicity, culture, age
describe sociometrically rejected. How do these kids differ from neglected and controversial?
many negative nominations, few positive ones.
perceived as unattractive
resistent to control, negative affect, shyness/inhibition, aggressive, withdrawn, anxietydepression
neglected: solitary, less sociable, non-aggressive
controversial: aggressive, hot-tempered, sociable
risk for later adjustment problems
rejected: stable peer status, risk for adj. problems esp. when combined with aggressive and/or withdrawal
externalzing and internalizing problems
neglected: less stable peer status, not linked to adjustment problems
controversial: unclear whether they are at risk
Intervention and prevention strategies for peer relation difficulties?
Social skills training - model/practice, coaching
social skills curricula for entire class, social-cognitive processes
results: modes effects on social-cognitive processes and target behaviors, limited effect on sociometric status: not sustained over time
fast-track project
parent training, school-based SSt, home visiting, academic tutoring for aggressive children.
results: reduces aggression, improved peer social preference
long term: reduced aggression but no sustained effect on sociometric status
What are the criticisms Thorne raises about the "two cultures" perspective?
- fails to account for within gender variations
- fails to account for the influence of the social context
- fails to account for sociocultural variation
When is gender segregation less likely to occur?
- in neighborhoods (vs. schools)
- when there are few playmates
- mixed-age groups
- teachers structure mixed-sex activities
- novel situations with unfamiliar peers
What cultural differences have been found with respect to gender segregation?
in low income Italian and African American girls - less avoidance of cross-gender interaction
African American, Latina, and Chinese - prefer direct argumentation
Evidence for gender segregation leading to sex-typed behaviors?
more time spent with same sex leads to more sex-typed behavior
boys: more rough and tumble, aggression, play away from the teacher
girls: less activity and aggression, more gender-typed play, play near adults
unique features of the classroom environment
physical environment: specified seating, teacher directed activities, whole class instruction, small group work, individual seat work
classroom comm.: speaking rules/restrictions, question-reply-response, verbal emphasis
behavioral expectations: self-regulation, self control, paying attention, stay seated, follow directions, work independently, sharing, turn-taking
performance evaluation: tests, grades, public evaluation, social comparison
Risk of poor children in the transition to elementary school?
Preschool benefits
- higher risk for retention, more likely to attend resource-poor schools with unprepared teachers.
- high quality preschool: higher IQ's, grades, achievement, reduced retention and placement in special ed.
Tharp's cultural compatibility hypothesis
education is more effective if taught in a way compatible with native culture.
Findings of the KEEP project
- Hawaiian children benefited from small mixed-sex groups withpeer teaching
- Navajo benefited from individual and small group instruction, same sex
- Navajo children benefited from longer wait times, and patient turn taking
- Hwaiian children prefer shorter wait time, lively, rapid overlapping speech
Short-term effects of teacher-child relationship on children's school adjustment?
closeness: better academic performance, school adjustment, school liking, self-directedness
conflict/dependency: school avoidance and dislike, less self-directedness and cooperation, poor academic performance, increased withdrawal and aggression with peers
How do children's friendships and peer relationships contribute to school adjustment?
Having friends = + school ajust. Children who maintain friendships throughout the year develop more favorable school attitudes: more enjoyable with friends, children feel less lonely, better attendence/ performance
acceptance: fosters sense of belonging, facilitates futre positive social relationships, better school adjustment
rejection: operates as a stressor, negative working model about social relationships, negative school perception and avoidance, low school performance.
What is the continuum of youth services? Where are youth development programs?
youth development
primary prevention
short-term intervention
long term treatment
from supporting healthy development to social control.
1. What is the philosophy behind youth development programs?
promote + development, even when seeking to prevent problems
"problem free is not fully prepared"
Characteristics of effective youth development programs/.
ICAN Peer leadership program
goals: to promote + development, even when seeking to prevent problems
supportive relationships with adults and peers
empower youth
high, positive expectations.
activities: formal and informal opportunities to nurture interests and talents, practice new skills, gain a sense of recognition. Skill building, real and challenging activities, broader horizons, developmental supports in other contexts: family, school, community.
Barriers to participation in ASPs for older youth
- perceived reduced need for ASPs
- financial constraints
- employment - 40% work
- disinterest/ boredom
- Relax factor
- family responsibilites
- transportation
Strategies to keep youth engaged in ASPs
- leadership and real world experience: opportunities for income
- flexible attendance policies, accessible locations
- bridge between school and community
Return on investment in ASPs
- positive return for public and private funders
- taxpayer savings: $2.19-$3.22 saved per dollar invested.