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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
basic level category
the level of abstraction that is most generally appropriate in a given situation or for the given speaker: e.g. dog, rather than animal or collie
classical concept
a concept that can be characterized by unchanging criteria: For instance, a triangle can be defined as a three sided figure.
color term
any word that refers to a color, e.g. magenta
compound word
a word composed of two or more free morphemes (e.g. blackboard, merry-go-round)
core group
a small subset of the vocabulary of a child, used very frequently
deictic terms
from the Greek deiktikos (able to show); words that are used as linguistic pointers (e.g. here, there) also call deixis.
derived word
a complex word made from a base morpheme to which various affixes have been assed: e.g. unhappiness is derived from happy by the addition of the affixes un- and -ness
fast mapping
children's ability to form an initial hypothesis about a word's meaning very quickly, after hearing it only once or twice; in depth learning requires multiple exposures to the word in many different contexts, however.
focal colors
among colors, those that are the most typical, the reddest reds and bluest blues.
folk etymology
an explanation of a word's origing that is not based on the actual historical record, but rather on common sense or custom: e.g. "It's called Friday because that's the day you eat fried fish"
free-word association
a word association in which the sub ject responds freely with the first word that comes to mind
irony
using words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning: e.g. "It's so clean in here," said of a messy dorm room
metalinguistic awareness
knowledge about language: e.g. an understanding of what a word is and a consciousness of the sounds of language. the ability to think about language.
metaphor
figure of speech in which one thing is called by the name of another to indicate the similarities between them: e.g. "This room is a pig pen"
novel name-nameless category principle
a strategy followed by yound language learners, who assume that if they hear a new word in the presence of an object whose name they do not know, the word refers to that object.
onset and rime
Onset refers to the initial consonant or group of consonants in a syllable, and rime refers to the remainder of the syllable.
ontological categories
concepts about how the world is organized that yound children have before they begin to learn language
ostension
pointing to referent; a technique used by mothers in teaching basic level categories e.g. that's your shoe.
overextension
used here to refer to a child's use of a word in a broader context than is permissible in the adult language: e.g. an infant may call all men Daddy. parents who call tigers kitty are also producing this.
phoneme
a speech sound that can signal a difference of meaning: two similar speech sounds p and b represent diff phonemes in English because there are pairs of words with diff meanings that have the same phonetic form, execept that one contains b where the other contains p: e.g. pet and bet
phonological awareness
a form of metalinguistic knowledge that includes the ability to recognize the sounds of language and to talk about them. one of the basic skills that underlies literacy.
preferential looking paradigm
an experimental design used with prelinguistic infants that tracks their eye movements when they are presented with verbal stimuli
principle of contrast
children's assumption that no two words have the same meaning. Hence they assume that a new word will ot refer to something for which they already have a name
principle of mutual exclusitivity
a cognitive bias shown by yound children, who typically avoid labeling anything at more than one level of generality; hence, they may refer to their pet as a dog, but not also as an animal
principles
rules or maxims. Basic tenets of a theory
probabilistic concept
a concept that is characterized by a variab le set of criteria, unlike a classical concept. For instance bird is a probabilistic concept, because no criterion defines it exclusively: a creature need not fly or have a beak or feathers to qualify as a bird.
productivity
refereing to the regular forms of a language that are used in the formation of new words, regular plural endings, for instance.
prototypes
an instance of a category that best exemplifies it: e.g., a robin is a prototypeical member of the category bird, because it has all of the important defining features.
referent
the actual things to which a particular word alludes-an actual cat, for instance-as opposed to the meaning of the word, which is a mental construct.
sarcasm
a use of language meant to wound others or convey contempt, often accomplished by the use of exaggerated intonation patterns and ironic devices (e.g. saying thank you SO MUCH to the person who say on your hat and crushed it.
semantic development
the acquisition of words and their many meanings and the development of that knowledge into a complex hierarchical network of associated meanings.
semantic feature
one of the criteria by which a concept is defined and distinguished from other concepts. For instance, + male and + relative are two features of the concept brother.
semantic network
a word and all of the words that are related to it through various hierarchies of meaning.
semantic transparency
obvious meaning. one of the principles children use in making new words: "plant man" for gardener, for instance
set task
a verbal task in which the respondent is required to produce particular types of items; for instance, to name in a short period of time as many items of clothing as possible or words beginning with a particular letter.
shape bias
a constraint on early word learning that leads the child to assume that a new word refers to the shape of an object rather than to its color, texture, or other properties
simplicity
one of the principles children follow in creating new words. They extend forms they already know to cover new situations, creating words like bicycler for one who rides a bicycle
syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift
the change-word association patterns seen when children reach the age of about seven; where previously they responded with a word that typically follows in conversations (eat: dinner), after the shift takes place they respond, like adults, with the same part of speech (eat: drink)
taxonomic principle
the assumption that a new word can be extended to members of the same category
underextension
use or understanding of a word that does not include its full range: assuming, for instance that dog refers only to collies
word assoiciations
words that come to mind as a result of hearing other words