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20 Cards in this Set

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Examples of new human infections since 1978 include:
HIV; Hantavirus; vCJD; Hendr/Nipah virus; Monkeypox; SARS: Avian Flu
Reasons for occurence of emerging/re-emerging infections include:
Travel/trade
Human encroachment into new habitats
Microbe mutation
Food processing/distribution
Prolonged incubation; progrerssive neurologic deterioration; histo shows vacuolization/astrocytosis; no detectable immune response -this desrcibes ??
Transmissibale Spongifrom Encephalopathy (TSE)
Describe the Prion Structure
proteinase K-resistant; B-pleated sheets replace helices; no nucleic acids. Abnormal protein clumps together inhibiting neural function.
TSE in animals
VS
TSE in Humans
ANIMALS: Scapie, BSE, Feline SE, T Mink E, Chronic Wasting Disease
HUMANS: CJD, vCJD, Kuru, Gertsmann-Straussler Syndrome, FF Insomnia
SARS is a type of ??
Pneumonia.

CDC definition of SARS: respiratory illness of unknown etiology with onset after 2/1/03.
How was SARS contained (Hint: 4 methods)
1. Quarantine
2. Travel bans
3. close schools/offices
4. use of masks
Where did SARS virus come from?
Unkown. Possibly from wet markets in SE Asia. It is unrelated to other coronaviruses.
Group A Influenze viruses - describe
many strain/serotypes. Same strain can infect many species. potential for new strain pandemics.
Group B Influenza strain - describe
Species specific, many serotypes.
Influenza A strains named for ??
Hemagglutinin & Nuraminidase spikes on viral coat. e.g H5N1 for current Avian flu
H1N1 and H3N2 Influenza starins
Flu strains which circulate in humasn each year.
Group A influenza can emerge pandemic strains. Theories on emergence include ??
1. Genetic reassortment of two strains in mixing host.
2. Re-emergence of previous strain.
3. Direct transfer from animals to man e.g. H5N1
Human cases of H5N1 as of 4/21/06 ??
204 cases
113 deaths - 55% mortality
19 yr male with flu-symptoms, fever, malaise etc. Chest clear, CXR normal. Pt returned in two days with NVD, but still no lung involvement. Developed cough with yellow sputum. Became dyspnic, died. What is the infective agent ??(Hint: he visited 4-corners region)
Hantavirus, caused Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.
Hantavirus Epidemiology
Zoonotic infection of rodents. Large mouse populations after drought allowed virus to spread. Virus shed in mouse feces - airborne when swept and can get inhaled.
Control of Hantavirus Exposure include:
Rodent elimination
Caution while cleaning
Outbreak of fatal rspiratory illnesss in racehorses, later in trainers and grooms - this was caused by ??
Hendra virus - a paramyxovirus. Fruit bat is natural host.
Outbreak of severe encephalitis in pig farmers. Pigs developed rspiratory problems. Abbattoir workers became sick too - name the organism.
Nipah Virus - a paramyxovirus. Fruit bat is natural host, pigs are reservoirs.
Causes rash and chills like small pox, but not lethal. CDC recommends smallpox vaccine for exposed individuals - name the organism (hint: source was imported Gambian Giant Pouched Rats)
Monkeypox