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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a global impairment of cognitive function;
usually progressive;
may be permanent;
interferes with normal social /occupational activities
Describe the following theory related to psychosocial aging: Disengagement theory
Aging involves mutual withdrawal (disengagement) between the older person and others in the elderly person’s environment. W/d relieves societal pressure.
Describe the following theory related to psychosocial aging: Activity Theory
The best way to age is to stay active physically and mentally.
Describe the following theory related to psychosocial aging: Continuity Theory
People maintain their values, habits, and behavior in old age. This theory accounts for the great variety of behavior in the elderly.
Identify common health problems experienced by the older adult
Health problems older adult may experience include:
-chronic diseases: heart, stroke, pneumonia, lung, cancer
-drug/alcohol abuse, misuse
-being abused, neglected
Describe community programs and services available for the older adult
-Assisted living
-Adult day care
-Adult foster care and group homes
Branch of Medicine that deals with the physiologic characteristics of aging AND
the diagnosis and tx. of disease affecting the aged
The study of ALL aspects of the aging process. Includes:
clinical, psychological, economic and sociologic issues of elderly/ consequences for individual and society
DEMENTIA: What are some of the symptoms that characterize it?
Chronic Personality breakdown;
confusion; disorientation; stupor; deterioration of intellectual capacity/function; impaired control of memory, judgment, impulses
DEMENTIAL: Are there forms of this that are reversible?
Yes: When caused by drug intoxication, hyperthyroidism, benign brain tumor, hydrocephalus, insulin shock
refers to various organic disorders disorders that progressively affect cognitive functioning, mental impairment of the older adult
Which body systems are affected by the normal process of aging?
Nearly All: Skin, Neuromuscular, Sensory/perceptual, Pulmonary, Cardiovascular, GI, Urinary, Genitals
What are the common biologic
theories of aging (x6)?
*wear and tear *endocrine theory
*free radical theory *genetic theories
*cross-linking theories *immune theorie
Describe the genetic theory of aging?
Organism is genetically pre-programmed for a predetermined number of cell divisions; after that the cell/organism dies.
Describe the immune theory of aging?
*Immunity becomes less effective w/ age; incubating viruses are now able to do damage.
*Decreased immune function causes increase in autoimmune responses. Antibodies attack self.
Describe the wear and tear theory of aging?
*vital parts run down over time;
*the faster an organism lives, the faster it dies
*cells wear out due to internal/external stressors: trauma, chemicals, buildup of wastes.
According to Erikson, what are some developmental tasks for older adults?
Adjust to: decreasing strength, health, retirement, lower income, deaths of loved ones, adult children, leisure time, slower responses. Staying active.
According to Erikson, what are some developmental tasks for older (75 and up)older adults?
Living alone; safeguarding health; remaining in touch; finding meaning in one's life; adjusting to death.
What are the 3 Areas that are considered for Developmental Assessment guidelines for the Older Adult?
*physical dev't
*psychosocial dev't
*dev't re: ADL's
Developmental changes in Older Adult
adjusting to physiologic changes*adapting lifestyle to diminishing energy/ability
maintaining vital signs (especially BP)
Psychosocial changes in Older Adult
satisfied in retirement participating socially
finding life worthwhile *finding comfort in values and/or spiritual philosphy
accepting of the death of others.
Developmental Assessment, ADL concerns are ?
Does the older adult:
have healthy practices for nutrition exercise, sleep etc.
have ability to care for self/secure adequate help
have satisfactory living arrangements/income
What are some guidelines for health promotion re: safety?
*home safety (falls, burns etc...)
*motor vehicle safety (esp. at night)
*precautions around pedestrian accidents.
What are some guidelines for health promotion re: Nutrition and exercise?
*well balanced diet (fewer calories for lowering metabolic rate)
*Vitamin D and Calcium
*avoid obesity, lack of exercise
What are some guidelines for health promotion re: social interactions?
*encourage intellectual/recreational pursuits, meaningful, supportive relationships
*ID availability of resource/community centers
Developement in the Middle Adult
l gradual internal and external physiologic changes occur
Developement in the Middle Adult
little change from adulthood
Developement in the Middle Adult
the middle adult years is increased personal freedom , economic stability, and social relationships. Relatively stable throughout adult life
Developement in the Middle Adult
Middle adults have completed their moral development and most are at conventional level ( According to Kohlberg)
Developement in the Middle Adult
As with moral development ,not all progress to Fowler's paradoxal- consolidative state of spiritual development
Leading cause of death in the middle adult:
MVA, occupational accident, suicide and chronic diseases.
Major Health problems:
cardiovascular, and pulmonary diseases, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis,diabetes mellitus, obesity, alcoholism,and depression
Functional Health Problems of the Middle adult
Hormonal changes affect men and woman differently . Woman undergo menopause, a decrease in ovarian function.
Functional Health Problems of the Older Adult
Disease complicates a person's ability to carry out usual and desired daily activities. Mental and physical decline in older adults often may not be directed related to the aging process
Common health problems in the Older Adult
The older adult is at increase for accidental injuries, because of change in vision, hearing, loss of mass, muscle, strength, and slower reflex and reaction time and decreased sensibility
is a form of prejudice, like racism,, in which older adults are stereotyped by characteristics found in only a few members of their group
view that older people are different, and will remain different; therefore they do not experience the same desires, needs, and concerns
Common myths
old age begins as at 65
Most older adults live in nursing homes
Most older adults are sick
old age means mental deterioration
older adults don't care how they look
Establish and guide the next generation, Accept middle age changes, adjust to the need of aging parents, reevaluate ones goals and accomplishments
Theories of Aging
genes control "genetic clocks"
Theories of Aging

focuses on the functions of the immune system
Theories of Aging

Cross Linkage
chemical reaction produces damage to the DNA and cell death
Theories of Aging

Free radical
molecules with seperated high-energy electrons have adverse effects on adjacent molecules
Nursing Interventions to promote health for middle and older adults
Teach the importance of regular exercise, make exercise part of your daily routine, do not smoke, drink alcohol, eat a diet that includes all food groups; low in fat, sat fat, cholesterol
Leading cause if death in elderly
heart disease
Teaching plan for older adults
chronic illness limits activities in almost half of older adults
meeting expenses of healthcare is often difficult ex medication cost, hospitalization costs, special equipment and supplies
Teaching plan for older adults cont.
Family members must learn to cope with the needs of the ill person
family members must adapt to psychological stressors
As defined by Erickson what stage of human development is the older adult
Ego-integrity versus despair and disgust as the last stage of human develop., which begins at 60 years of age
According to Havighurst which is a developmental task of the older adult?
Adjust to declining physical strength and health
viewed the middle years as a time adults increase their feelings of self satisfaction, value their spouse as a companion, and become more concerned with health
Is the most common degernative neurologic illness and the most common cause of cognitive impairment