Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dialogue with user or manager to obtain their requirements
conversational, questions with no specific answers in mind
Open-Ended Interviewing
structured, questions with limited range of possible answers
Close-Ended Interviewing
document for developing, planning and conducting an interview.
Interview Guide
Each question in an interview guide can include both ________ and __________ information
verbal; non-verbal
Advantages of Individual Interviews
Easier to schedule than group interviews
Disadvantages of Individual Interviews
Contradictions and inconsistencies between interviewees
Follow-up discussions are time consuming
Advantages of Group Interviews
More effective use of time
Can hear agreements and disagreements at once
Opportunity for synergies
Disadvantages of Group Interviews
More difficult to schedule than individual interviews
Risk of social desirability in answers
A facilitated process that supports idea generation by groups
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
Watching users do their jobs
Direct Observation
Can provide more accurate information than self-reporting (like questionnaires and interviews)
Direct Observation
Review of existing business documents
Document Analysis
Can give a historical and “formal” view of system requirements
Document Analysis
Four types of useful documents
Written work procedures
Business form
Description of current information system
Describes how a job is performed
Includes data and information used and created in the process of performing the job or task
Written work procedures
Explicitly indicate data flow in or out of a system
Business Form
Enables the analyst to work backwards from the report to the data that generated it
business document that formally describes work processes, provides useful information regarding system functionality and logic.
Written work procedure
Potential Problems with Procedure Documents
May involve duplication of effort
May have missing procedures
May be out of date
May contradict information obtained through interviews
The official way a system works as described in organization’s documentation
The way a system actually works in practice
Interviews and observation reveal informal system
Brings together key users, managers, and systems analysts
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Facilitate sharing of ideas and voicing of opinions about system requirements
Not used by most organizations
Group Support Systems
Used to analyze existing systems
Help discover requirements to meet changing business conditions
CASE tools
Iterative development process
Rudimentary working version of system is built
Refine understanding of system requirements in concrete terms
System prototypes
facilitates group process
Session Leader
active, speaking participants
active, speaking participants
high-level champion, limited participation
should mostly listen
Scribe: record session activities
Systems Analysts
should mostly listen
IS Staff
Documentation detailing existing system
Features of proposed system
End Result
CASE Tools During JAD
Upper CASE tools are used
Enables analysts to enter system models directly into CASE during the JAD session
Screen designs and prototyping can be done during JAD and shown to users
Quickly converts requirements to working version of system
Prototyping Drawbacks
Tendency to avoid formal documentation
Difficult to adapt to more general user audience
Sharing data with other systems is often not considered
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are often bypassed
Search for and implementation of radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
Reorganize complete flow of data in major sections of an organization
Eliminate unnecessary steps
Combine steps
Become more responsive to future change
BPR Goals
Technologies that enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes
Disruptive technologies
Replace traditional SDLC waterfall with iterative analyze – design – code – test cycle
Continual user involvement
Focuses on user goals, roles, and tasks
Agile usage-centered design
Based on eXtreme programming
Exploration, steering, commitment
The Planning Game
Graphically represent the processes that capture, manipulate, store, and distribute data between a system and its environment and among system components
Process Modeling
Scope of system
Context data flow diagram (DFD)
Enables analysts to understand current system
DFDs of current physical and logical system
Technology independent
Show data flows, structure, and functional requirements of new system
DFDs of new logical system
A picture of the movement of data between external entities and the processes and data stores within a system
Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
depict logical data flow independent of technology
depict details of physical systems
work or actions performed on data (inside the system)
Process DFD Symbol
data at rest (inside the system)
Data store DFD symbol
external entity that is origin or destination of data (outside the system)
Source/sink DFD symbol
arrows depicting movement of data
Data Flow DFD System
No process can have only _____ or only _________ processes must have both ________ and ______________.
(Part of DFD Diagramming Rules for *Process*)
Process labels should be _______ phrases

(Part of DFD Diagramming Rules for *Process*)
All flows to or from a data store must move through a _______________.

DFD Diagramming Rules for *Data Store*
Data store labels should be _________ phrases

DFD Diagramming Rules for *Data Store*
No data moves directly between external entities without going through a ________________

DFD Diagramming Rules Source/Sink
Interactions between external entities without _________________ are outside the system and therefore not represented in the DFD.
intervening processes

DFD Diagramming Rules Source/Sink
Source and sink labels should be ________ phrases

DFD Diagramming Rules Source/Sink
Bidirectional flow between process and data store is represented by ____________
two separate arrows.

DFD Diagramming Rules Data Flow
Forked data flow must refer to __________ (not different data items) from a common location to multiple destinations.
exact same data item

DFD Diagramming Rules Data Flow
Joined data flow must refer to ____________ (not different data items) from multiple sources to a common location.
exact same data item

DFD Diagramming Rules Data Flow (cont.)
Data flow cannot go directly from a process to itself, must go through ______________
intervening processes.

DFD Diagramming Rules Data Flow (cont.)
Data flow from a process to a data store means __________
update (insert, delete or change).

DFD Diagramming Rules Data Flow (cont.)
Data flow from a data store to a process means ___________ or _____________
retrieve or use.

DFD Diagramming Rules Data Flow (cont.)
Data flow labels should be __________ phrases.

DFD Diagramming Rules Data Flow (cont.)
An iterative process of breaking a system description down into finer and finer detail
Functional Decomposition
High-level processes described in terms of lower-level sub-processes
Functional Decomposition
Overview of the organizational system
Context DFD (DFD Level)
Representation of system’s major processes at high level of abstraction
Level-0 DFD
Results from decomposition of Level 0 diagram
Level-1 DFD
Results from decomposition of Level n-1 diagram
Level-n DFD
shows the system boundaries, external entities that interact with the system, and major information flows between entities and the system.
Context Diagram
shows the system’s major processes, data flows, and data stores at a high level of abstraction.
Level-0 DFD
shows the sub-processes of one of the processes in the Level-0 DFD.
Level-1 DFD
shows the sub-processes of one of the processes in the Level n-1 DFD.
Level-n DFD
The conservation of inputs and outputs to a data flow process when that process is decomposed to a lower level
DFD Balancing
the process of the context diagram has only one input but the Level-0 diagram has two inputs
Unbalanced DFD
the numbers of inputs and outputs of context diagram process equal the number of inputs and outputs of Level-0 diagram.
Balanced DFD
Four Different Types of DFD
Current Physical
Current Logical
New Logical
New Physical
Process labels identify technology (people or systems) used to process the data.
Data flows and data stores identify actual name of the physical media.
Current Physical
Physical aspects of system are removed as much as possible.
Current system is reduced to data and processes that transform them
Current Logical
Includes additional functions
Obsolete functions are removed
Inefficient data flows are reorganized
New Logical
Represents the physical implementation of the new system
New Physical
The process of discovering discrepancies between two or more sets of data flow diagrams or discrepancies within a single DFD
Gap Analysis
Depiction of a system’s behavior or functionality under various conditions as the system responds to requests from users
Use Cases
use case diagram symbols

Use Case
use case diagram symbols

stick figure
use case diagram symbols

use case diagram symbols

use case diagram symbols

Line w/ <<include>>
Include Relationship
use case diagram symbols

Line w/ <<extend>>
Extend Relationship
external entity that interacts with the system.
An actor is a ______, not a specific user
the dividing line between the system and its environment
Use cases are ________ the boundary
Actors are __________ of the boundary
an association between an actor and a use case
A connection between two use cases
<<extend>> Relationship

<<include>> Relationship
Document containing detailed specifications for a use case
Written Use Cases