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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Traditional Waterfall SDLC
Advantages of SDLC
Less Changes - Less Cost
Disadvantages of SDLC
Lacks flexibility to change
Locks in users’ requirements too early
Limited user involvement
Long development period
Two Alternatives to SDLC
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Advantages of Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Reduces development time
Extensive user involvement
Combination of several systems development components: JAD, fourth-generation programming languages (VB), prototyping, CASE tools and code generators
Disadvantages of Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Sometimes designed in a rush
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Flow
Requirements Planning
User Design
An iterative process of systems development in which requirements are converted to a working system (a scaled-down version)
Analysis, design and implementation phases are performed concurrently
Work in manageable modules
Build the prototype rapidly
Modify the prototype
Stress the user interface
Prototyping Advantages
Make changes in a short period of time
Users are involved in design
Captures requirements in concrete form
Protyping Disadvantages
Premature system
May be inadequate for overall system needs
Six Main Types of Software Providers
Hardware manufacturers
Packaged software providers
Custom software providers
Vendors of enterprise-wide solution software
Application service providers
In-house software developers
The practice of turning over responsibility for some or all of an organization's information systems applications and operations to an outside firm
Outsourcing Advantages
Rely on experts
Free up internal resources
Outsourcing Disadvantages
Security issues
Time Zones
Cultural differences
Open-Source Software
Any computer program with accessible source code. Anyone is legally and technically able to change and/or redistribute the software.
It is Free software.
Phases of Project Management Process
Phase 1: Initiation
Phase 2: Planning
Phase 3: Execution
Phase 4: Closedown
Critical path
the shortest time in which a project can be completed
Slack time
the time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project
Traditional Requirements Determination Methods
Interviewing individuals
Interviewing groups
Observing workers
Studying business documents
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Intensive group-oriented requirements determination technique
Team members meet in isolation for an extended period of time
Highly focused
Resource intensive
Prototyping is most useful when
User requests are not clear
Few users are involved in the system
Designs are complex and require concrete form
History of communication problems between analysts and users
Tools are readily available to build prototype
Prototyping Drawbacks
Tendency to avoid formal documentation
Difficult to adapt to more general user audience
Sharing data with other systems is often not considered
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are often bypassed
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
Search for and implementation of radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services
Goals of Business Process Reengineering
Reorganize complete flow of data in major sections of an organization
Eliminate unnecessary steps
Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
A picture of the movement of data between external entities and the processes and data stores within a system
DFD Levels
Context DFD
Level-0 DFD
Level-1 DFD
Level-n DFD
Context DFD
Overview of the organizational system
Level-0 DFD
Representation of system’s major processes at high level of abstraction
Level-1 DFD
Results from decomposition of Level 0 diagram
Level-n DFD
Results from decomposition of Level n-1 diagram
Four Different Types of DFD
Current Physical
Current Logical
New Logical
New Physical