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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1.Where (in the body) does hearing occur?
In the brain
2.What is the function of a sense organ?
translate stimuli from the environment into something your brain can process
3. What is a transducer?
the sense organ that translates stimuli something that changes energy from one form into another.
4.Why do environmental stimuli have to be translated into a neural/electrical code?
because this is the only way our body can understand it
5.Across animals with have a sense of hearing, what is the single most important function of hearing?
distance receptors,
6.What are some special advantages (to any animal) of hearing?
To regulate LIFE processes to find food to escape becoming food to find shelter to find a mate
7.What is an example of an animal with a sense of hearing?
What is an example of an animal which doesn’t have hearing?
snails, worms starfish clams jellyfish
8.In general, what are the four divisions of the auditory system? (See DL, Fig. 4-1)
outer ear, middle ear, innter ear, central auditory nervous system
9a. anterior
toward front of body
9b. posterior
toward rear of body
9c. inferior
toward feel
9d. superior
toward head
9e. internal
special relationship between something (inside)
9f. external
special relationship between something (outside)
9g. lateral
toward outside of body
9h. medial
toward inside of body
9i. proximal
toward the body
9k. distal
away from body
9l. central
9m. peripheral
10. What are: sagittal
11. What is/where is the cranial skeleton?
12. What bones in the cranial skeleton house the auditory system?
Temporal bone 2 bones one on each side
13. Be able to identify the following: temporal bone
external auditory meatus
14. What are the middle cranial fossae and where are they?
Center of the skull label m on page 203
15. What are the four parts of the temporal bone? Can you label the parts on a drawing?
squamous, tympanic, mastoid, petrous
16. What is special concerning the petrous part of the temporal bone?
Hardest densist bone
17. What is special concerning the mastoid part of the temporal bone?
It is filled with air cells
18. What are cranial nerves?
begin and end within the cranium
How many in total are there?
12 pairs or 24 nerves
19. Which five cranial nerves are part of the auditory system?
Vtrigeminal VIIFacial VIII Auditory IXGlossopharyngeal Xvagus
21. What are the two parts of the outer ear?
Pinna and the external ear canal
22. What is a typical difference in the outer ears of non-human animals as compared to a typical human?
All they have is a tragus / we can’t close our tragus when going under water (no control) we can’t move our ears around
23. On a pinna: can you locate the following landmarks?
triangular fossa
scaphoid fossa
crus of the helix
thick stubply ears
opposite the tragus
intertragal incisure
something inbetween
24. About how long is the external ear canal?
30mm about an inch
25. What is the isthmus and where is it?
It is the dividing line between the bony and the cartilaginous part of the ear canal
26. Where is the cartilaginous portion of the ear canal?
The lateral half
27. Where is the bony portion of the ear canal?
28. What is at the medial end of the ear canal?
29. What is cerumen and where is it manufactured?
(SIR-u-man) outer ear canal secretion from sebaceous kills bacteria
30. What are the parts of the middle ear?
the Ossicles, incus, maleus, and stapes
31. What is\where is the tympanic membrane (TM)?
Boundry between middle and outer ear canal
32. How many layers does the TM have?
3 layers lateral skin of the ear canal/ intermediate/ medial
33. What are the names of the two parts (in Latin, pars)?
Tensa: more rigid, most of surface area Has two types of fibers: Radial and Spiral / PARS Flaccida: less rigid
34. On a structural basis, what distinguishes pars flaccida from pars tensa?
Has radial and spiral fibers and a lot of them reflex light differently because of tension
35. On visual inspection of a normal TM, what are some landmarks which should be visible?
Malleus, incus, annular ligament, long process of incus
36. Be able to draw a normal tympanic membrane.
37. What is the middle ear normally filled with?
38. What are the names and locations of the main middle ear cavities?
tympanic cavity, tegmen tymapni empitympanic recess, aditua, mastois Antrum, auditory/Eustachian tube opening
39. Think of the middle ear as “a rectangular box” with six sides: Name all six sides using the anatomical location name (for example, superior) and additionally, name at least one landmark on each side.
lateral wall is the tm, opposite is the medial wall ,superior to the promitory is the oval window, infirior to the promitory is the round window, on the anterior wall is the opening for the Eustachian tube, on the posterior wall is the aditus medial to the aditus is the facial nerve canal, on the floor is the jugular fassa, ceiling is the bone
41. How is the eustachian tube similar to OR different from the external auditory canal?
similar cartilage and bone external has cerumin and the other has mucus
42. What are the two functions of the eustachian tube?
Active transport system , source of ventilation
43. What is a consequence if the major function at #42 is compromised?
mucous brakes down tm gets more pressure
44. What are the ossicles (name, location)?
incus, maleus, and stapes
What ossicle attaches to the tympanic membrane?
45. To what membrane is the stapes attached?
46. What are the two middle ear muscles?
the tensor tympanic muscle and the stapedius muscle,
Where does each arise from and each attach to?
Arises at Anterior Wall of ME, Attaches to Malleus, Arises at Posterior Wall of ME, Attaches to Stapes
47. What are the three general functions of the outer ear?
collection of sound waves,
48. What specifically contributes to the protection function of the outer ear?
ceruman, shape of the ear canal
49. Why does the outer ear have “a resonant frequency”?
because it has a mechanics and also a cavity
50. In an average adult, what is the typical resonant frequency of the ear canal?
51. When is the resonant frequency of the ear canal measured in clinical work in audiology?
To fit a hearing aid