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109 Cards in this Set

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Name the 4 steps of sex determination.
genetic, gondadal, phenotypic, psychological
When do each of the 4 stages of sex determination occur?
genetic-fertilization
gonadal-6th week
phenotypic-7th week
psychological-neonate-puberty
Name 4 parts the help shape psychological sex.
gender identity, gender roles, gender orientation (the choice of sex partners), cognitive differences
What is penotypic sex induced by?
hormones
What is the reproductive capablity of someone who is XXX? XXY?
XXX-produce normal offspring
XXY-spermatogenesis is not functional
What is the syndrome of XXY? Describe the genitalia?
Klinefelter's syndrome
normal penis, small testicles
What is Turner's syndrome?
females having only one X choromosome (XO)
Name the three cell types from which gonads develop.
coelomic epithelium, mesenchyme, primordial germ cells
What are primordial germ cells destined to produce? Where are they first visible? And at what week?
eggs or sperm
in the yolk sac near the allantois outside the embryo during 4th emobryonic week
What might primordial germ cells be derived from?
epiblast/ectoderm
The epithelial cells of the coelomic epithelium thicken and differentiate over what? What does this form?
mesenchyme near the mesonephros
-genital ridge
What does the gonadal ridge become?
bipotential gonad
During the 6th week, how many primordial germ cells migrate into each gondal ridge?
300-1300
The paramesonephric duct or Mullerian duct develops as an invagination of what?
coelomic epithelium
Near the developing gonad is the pre-existing mesonephric duct as well as _____.
paramesonephric or Mullerian duct
What surrounds the incoming primordial germ cells?
mesenchymal cells of the gonadal ridge
What are primordial germ cells within the developing ovary callede by the 7th-9th week? What is the percentage of cells present at this time?
oogonia
8-10%
What do the mesenchymal cells that surround the oogonia become? At what week does this occur?
follicular cells
week 14
What happens to oocytes that are not surrounded by follicular cells?
apoptosis
Describe the need for steroids in development of the female genitalia.
little steroid production by the fetal ovary and it isn't neccesary for development of female tubular structures or female external genitalia
True or False. Testicular development lags slightly behind ovarian development.
False, ovarian dev is behind testicular dev
What do the cortical sex cords differentiate into?
follicular cells
What is incorporated into follicular cells?
primordial germ cells
What inhibits completion of meiosis until puberty in females?
follicular cells
The arrangement of flattened follicular cells around a meiotically-blocked oogonium is known as what?
primordial follicle
XO oocytes in Turner's syndrome generally undergo embryonic atresia. What does this result in?
disrupted ovarian development
When in female development is there the greatest number of germ cells?
week 20 (embryologically)
What do many of the male accessory reproductive organs develop from?
embryonic urinary system structures
Which phenotype is inherent (dominant or the default developmental path)?
female
What do the paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts form?
oviducts, uterus, and most of vagina
What happens to the caudal ends of the paramesonephric ducts? What does this form?
they grow together as they join the urogenital sinus
-joint midline structure, uterovaginal primordium
What is the urogenital sinus formed from?
cloaca
What does the uterovaginal primordium form?
proximal 4/5 of vagina and cervix and uterus
The contact of the uterovaginal primordium and urogenital sinus induces what?
sinusal tubercle
What is the cloaca?
an expansion of the rectum
Name the 2 chambers of the cloaca.
urogenital sinus and rectum
What is the urogenital sinus connected to?
allantois
Name the 3 folds of the rectum.
superior Tourneus fold and L&R Rathke's folds
What is the urogenital sinus further divided into in females?
sinovaginal bulbs and urethra and bladder
What do the sinovaginal bulbs develop from? What do they form?
dev from sinusal tubercle
form distal 1/5 of vagina
Where does the sinovaginal bulb develop with respect of the urethra?
posterior (sinovaginal bulb forms distal 1/5 of vagina)
What does the superior part of the vagina form from? lower portion?
-uterovginal primordium (Mullerian ducts)
-sinuvaginal bulbs
The greater vestibular glands of the female are homologous to what in males?
bulbourethral glands
What is another name for greater vestibular glands? (female)
Bartholin's glands
What is another name of bulbourethral glands? (male)
Cowper's
The fusion of the paramesonephric ducts from each side bring together peritoneal folds wichi unite to form what?
broad ligament, vesicouterine pouch anteriorly and rectouterine pouch posteriorly
In males, as primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate into the gonadal ridge, the mesenchymal cells surround the PGCs and differentiate into what?
sertoli cells
What do sertoli cells form? What are these precursors to?
sex cords, precursors to seminiferous tubules
What do peritubular myoid cells migrate into? What are they from?
migrate to developing testis
from mesonephric kidney
What do mesenchymal cells differentiate into?
Leydig cells
What do the embryonic sertoli cells produce?
anti-Mullerian hormoe
What do Leydig cells produce?
testosterone
As the testis develop what does the coelomic epithelium differentiate into?
tunica albuginea, the CT capsule of testis
Name the two hormones produced by the embryonic testis.
MIS (Mullerian inhibiting substance) (anti-Mullerian hormone or AMH) and testosterone
What do Sertoli cells secrete? What does this prevent?
AMH (MIS)
prevents female reproductive structures from forming from the Mullerian (paramesonephric ducts)
What secretes testosterone? What does this induce?
Leydig cells
male reproductive structures form both internally and externally
Name the structures that develop from the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct in males. What must be present for this to occur?
epididymis, vas deferens, ejcaculatory duct, and seminal vesicle
androgens and functional receptors must be present
What is androgen produced from?
Leydig cells
What does the prostate gland develop from?
prostatic urethra (urogenital sinus endoderm)
What does the stroma and smooth muscle of the male reproductive organs form from?
mesenchyme
What does the epithelium of the bulbourethral glands form from?
spongy portion of urethra and CT and SM from mesenchyme
What do the prostate and bulbourethral glands bud from? What do the seminal vesicles bud from?
-urethra
-mesonephric duct
What allows the germ cells developed in the testes to exit the body? What does this bypass? What do they exit through?
embryonic kidney structures
bladder
penis
Where are the gonads of both males and females initially located?
posterior abdominal wall
Name the two ligaments that the gonads are attached to.
superior suspensory ligament and gubernculum
What is the name of the evagination obliquely through the inferior abdominal wall in both sexes?
inguinal canal
What extends from the inferior pole of the gonad through the inguinal canal into the labioscrotal swellings?
gubernaculum
What is the extension of peritoneum that herniates through the abdominal wall following the path of the gubernaculum in males?
processus vaginalis
What does the processus vaginalis carry with it? What will is form?
layers of the extensions of the abdominal wall
forms layers of the inguinal canal and in males the coverings of the spermatic cord and testis
What forms the deep inguinal ring?
opening in the transversalis fascia
What forms the superficial inguinal ring?
opening in the external oblique apooneurosis
When do the testes normally migrate to the deep inguinal ring?
by 7th month
In females, what is the gubernaculum responsible for? What does it form?
pulls ovaries into the pelvis and forms the proper ligament of the ovary and round ligament of the uterus
Where does the gubernaculum extend to in females?
labia magus
What does testicular descent into the scrotum require?
expression of a Leydig cell produced hormone
What does the knocking out of Leydig insulin like hormone (Insl3) cause in mice?
cryptorchidism
What do fetal Leydig cells secrete?
Leydig-insulin like hormone
What happens to the cranial suspensory ligament when exposed to androgens?
it involutes
What helps keep the ovaries in the pelvis?
suspensory ligament of the ovary
What is the condition when the testes fail to fully descend into the scrotum? What are clinical side effects to this condition?
cryptorchidism
-incidence of testicular tumors, infertility
What is the condition of a persistent processus vaginalis, large enough to only permit passage of peritoneal fluid?
hydrocele
What is the persistent processus vaginalis that allows herniation of intestine intot he scrotum?
congenitla inguinal hernia
Name the remnants of the mesonephric duct that may not undergo emplete apoptosis in females. What would these structures be buried by?
paroophoron, epoophoron, duct of Gartner
-broad ligament
Name the male remnant(s) of the paramesonephric duct?
appendix of the testis
Name the 4 common embryonic structures that external genitalia develop from.
genital tubercle, urogenital fold, urethral groove, labioscrotal (genital) swelling
What forms from the genital tubercle (phallus) in females? males?
clitoris
penis
In females, the unfused urogenital folds form what? males?
labia minora
spongy urethra (penis body)
In females,the unfused labioscrotal forms what? males?
labia majora
scrotum
What do the glandular part of th epenis and termianl part of the penile urethra form from?
ectoderm
In females, what does the urogenital groove form? males?
-opening of urethra & vagina
-opening of urethra
What is hypospadia? What causes it?
when the opening of the urethra is on the ventral surface of the penis or scrotum
-failure of the fusion of the urogenital fold to meet in the midline
What is epispadia?
urethral opening on the dorsal surface of the penis
Which is more common, hypospadia or epispadia?
hypospadia
Describe the phenotype of testicular feminization. What is the genotype?
individuals appear as phenotypic females despite the presence of testes in the labia majora
XY
What is the cause of testicular feminization?
defective androgen receptor (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome)
Describe the defect in Adrenal Virilizing Hyperplasia. What is the result?
defect in cortisol pathway
results in excess production of anterior pituitary trophic hormones and an excessive stimulation of the adrenal fetal cortex.
What does excessive stimulation of the fetal adrenal cortex lead to? What can this cause?
androgen production
masculinization of the female genitales
What is the genotype in Adrenal Virilizing Hyperplasia?
XX
Name the female and male structures that are derived from primordial germ cells.
f-oocytes
m-spermatogenic cells
Name the female and male structures that are derived from indifferent gonads.
f-ovary
m-testis
Name the female and male structures that are derived from gubernaculum.
f-proper ovarian ligament and round ligament of the uterus
m-gubernaculum testis
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the mesonephric tubules.
f-epoophoron and paroophoron
m-efferent ductules
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct).
f-duct of Gartner
m-appendix of epididymis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the ureteric bud.
f-ureter
m-ureter
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the paramesonephric duct (Mullerian duct).
f-oviduct (Fallopian tube), uterus, proximal 4/5 of vagina, Hydatid of Morgagni
m-appendix of testis
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the urogenital sinus.
f-urinary bladder, urethra, distal 1/5 of vagina, paraurethral glands (Skene's), greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's)
m-bladder, urethra (except navicular fossa), prostatic utricle, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland (Cowper's)
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the phallus (genital tubercle).
f-clitoris, glans of clitoris, vestibular bulbs, corpora cavernosa clitoris, and corpus psongiosum clitoris
m-penis, glans, body corpora cavernosa, and corpus spongiosum of penis
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the urogenital folds.
f-labia minora
m-ventral surface of penis
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the labioscrotal swellings.
f-labia majoria
m-scrotum