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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
regeneration
regrowth of a lost of injured body part
parthenogenesis
development of UNfertilized egg into an adult. Organism develops from a haploid cell, so all of its cells will be haploid.
Pathway of sperm
SEVEN UP

seminiferous tubules
epididymis
vas deference
ejaculatory duct
(nothing)
urethra
penis
testes
male gonads with two function components:
- semiferous tubules
- interstitial cells (cells of Lidig)
- located in scrotum
sertoli cells
nourish sperm that are made in the seminiferous tubules
interstitial cells
located between seminiferous tuvules
- secrete testosterone and other androgens (male sex hormones)
scrotum
extern pouch that holds the testes
- maintains testes temp 2-4 degrees lower than body temp, which is necessary for sperm survival
epididymis
here, sperm acquire motility, mature, and are stored until ejaculation
seminal fluid
mixed with sperm
- produced by 3 glands and 3 components:
1- seminal vesicles: secrete a fructose-rich fluid that serves as energy for sperm
2- prostate gland: secrete alkaline milky fluid that protects sperm from acidic environment of female reproductive tract
3- bulbourethral glands: secrete viscous fluid prior to ejaculation
-
semen
sperm + seminal fluid
spermatogenesis
sperm production that occurs in seminferous tubules
- spermatogonia (2N)
(differentiate)
- 1o spermatocytes (2N)
(meiosis I)
- 2o spermatocytes (N)
(meiosis II)
- spermatids (N)
- spermatozoa (N) = mature
acrosome
enzyme in cap-like head of sperm (derived from Golgi) and is needed to penetrate egg
ovaries
female gonads
- produce ova (eggs)
- secrete estrogen and progesterone
follicle
multilayered sac that contains, nourishes, and protects immature ova
oogenesis
occurs in ovarian follicles
- 1o oocyte (2N) form by mitosis and found at birth
- 2o oocyte (N) form by meiosis I and found after menarche
(fertilization --> meiosis II)
zona pellucida
inner layer of cells of oocyte
- acrosome responsible for penetrating it
corona radiata
outer later of cells in oocyte
- first barrier sperm must peneratrate by sperm enzymes (not acrosome)
Meiosis II 2o oocyte triggered when...
zona pellucida and corona radiate are penetrated by sperm (i.e. fertilization)
mature ovum contains...
lots of cytoplasm, RNA, organelles, and nutrients for a developing embryo
fertilization
- occurs in later, widest portion of fallopian tube
acrosomal reaction
- triggers a cortical reaction in ovum:
- Ca2+ released into cytoplasm initiation formation of fertilization membrane and stimulates increased metabolic rate
fertilization membrane
- hard layer that surrounds the ocum cell membrane and prevents multiple fertilizations
- formed by Ca2+ release by ovum in response to acrosome
monozygotic twins
identical twins
- result when a single zygote splits into two embryos
- splitting occurs at the two-cell stage of development
dizygotic twins
fraternal twins
- result when two ova are released in one ovarian cycle and are fertilized by two different sperm