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21 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotic Cells
doesn't have a membrane bound nucleus or organelles.
Monera
What kingdom are prokaryotic cells part of?
nucleoid region
Where is the genetic material located for prokaryotic cells?
Glycocalyx
Capsule (slime layer)
Flagella
Cell Wall
Plasma membrane
Fluid mosaic model (phospholipid bilayer)
Chromatophores
Nuclear material
Ribosomes
Cytoplasmic Inclusions
Magnetosomes
Endospores
Name the prokaryotic cell structures.
Glycocalyx
Capsule (slime layer)
A layer of gelatinous material covering the cell.

inhibit phagocytosis and allows for adhesion.

Composition varies with species:
Polypeptides
Polysaccharides
Glycoprotein
1. adhesion to surfaces
2. Osmotic barriers
3. Protect bacteria from phagocytosis
4. Storage of nutrients (under starvation only)
What are the functions of the capsule (slime layer) of the prokaryotic cell?
Flagella or Flagellum
Locomotion/Motility
Peritrichous
Amphitrichous
Monotrichous
Lophotrichous
Fimbrae and Pili
Small hair-like projections

not meant for motility

sexual conjugation
Surface adhesion
Bacteriophage
sexual conjugation
Pili form tubes for transfer of genetic material.
Bacteriophage
bacteria eating virus

have receptors

some viruses attach to pili.
cell wall

peptidoglycan
1. Maintains the shape of the cell.
2. Physical protection
3. Enables the cell to escape rupture (lysis) in a hypotonic environment.
Lattice/Net-like structure.

Consists of ___________ units that repeat over and over.
Gram Positive structure
Many layers of peptidoglycan. Forms a thick rigid structure. Contain teichoic acid.
Gram Negative structure
Thin layer of peptidoglycan. Looser lattice (less rigid cell wall). High lipid content. No teichoic acid.
Plasma Membrane of prokaryotic cell.
1. Regulates diffusion in and out of the cell.
2. Contains active transport system.
3. Site of enzymes involved in ATP production.
Fluid mosaic model
Phospholipid bilayer

A "dynamic" arrangement of phospholipids and proteins.
Chromatophores
Contain chlorophyll

Only found in photosynthetic bacteria
Nuclear material

plasmids
1 chromosome (DNA) loose in the cytoplasm in the nucleoid region. Bacteria often contain small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules called ________.
Ribosomes
Granules scattered throughout the cytoplasm.

Assemble A.A.'s into polypeptides (protein synthesis)
Cytoplasmic Inclusions

phosphate
phosphate granules.
Accumulated stored materials:

1. Metachromatic granules (volution) stored form of _________ or _________ _________.
2. Polysaccharide granules
3. Lipid inclusions
Magnetosomes
Inclusions of iron oxide.

Act like magnets

May protect cells from accumulation of hydrogen peroxide.
Endospores
Highly resistant structure.

Produced by certain bacteria.

All members of the family Bacillaceae produce _________.

eg. clostridium