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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How long is the large intestine?
~1.5 meters
Components of the large intestine:
-Colon (asc/trans/desc/sigmoid)
What are the main functions in the rectum?
Absorption of water and compaction of rest of junk for feces
Can you distinguish the cecum?
What separates the ileum from cecum?
The ileocecal valve
Function of the ileocecal valve:
Prevents reflux of cecal content back into ileum
How is the lumen surface of the colon mainly different from SI?
-No plicae circulares
-No villi
What are the cells that make up the colonic epithelium?
Mainly the same as in the SI, except no Paneth cells
If there are no villi in the colon, are there crypts of lieberkuhn?
What cells are abundant in the crypts of the large colon?
Goblet cells! need grease to ease the poop along..
How often is the epithelium of the colon replaced?
Every 6-7 days
How is the lamina propria in the colon compared to SI?
How is the muscularis mucosa in the colon compared to SI?
Better developed in colon - can more easily see clear circular and longitudinal layers.
Is the submucosa very distinguishable in the colon?
What about the muscularis externa?
What distinguishes the muscularis externa in the colon?
Arranged in 3 layers - Taenia coli - that make the large intestine puckered into SACULATIONS
What are the sacculations of the large intestine called?
Haustra coli
What nerves are in the large colon?
The same as in small - Submucosal plexus and Myenteric
What is the cause of hirschprung's disease?
Failure of neural crest cells to come into the distal gut wall during development.
So what is lacking in the disease?
The myenteric plexus of the large intestine.
What happens to the gut as a result?
The uninnervated part atrophies and plugs up the gut before it - so that part distends - MEGACOLON.
When is hirschsprung's normally diagnosed?
Just after birth when the baby can't pass meconium.
What is the appendix?
A blind-ended tube.
What is the characteristic feature of the appendix?
Lyphoid masses in the mucosa and submucosa
How long is the rectum?
12 cm - about half a foot!
What happens at the rectoanal junction?
The epithelium goes from being simple columnar to STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
What replaces the crypts just prior to the rectoanal junction?
Circumanal glands
What are the venous plexuses in the anal canal submucosa?
-Internal hemorrhoidal plexus
-External hemorrhoidal plexus
What happens to old and pregnant people?
These hemorrhoidal plexuses get bigger and become hemorrhoids.
What type of muscle is the anal sphincter? External?
Internal = Smooth
External = Striated