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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 things regulated by the Hypothalamus:
1. Body temp
2. Feeding/energy metabolism
3. Emergency response to Stress
4. BP/Electrolyte composition
5. Sex
Where can the hypothalamus get sensory info from?
Virtually the entire body
Where does it get visual info?
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
Where does it get pain?
From the spinal cord and trigeminal nerve
What do internal sensory neurons give input to the hypothalamus about?
-Local temp
In what areas do hormones act ON the hypothalamus?
Circumventricular organs
What does the hypothalamus establish for body regulation?
What are the 3 ways that the hypothalamus responds to a deviation from setpoint?
-Autonomic adjustments
-Endocrine adjustments
-Behavioral (limbic) adjustments
What are neurons in the Anterior Hypothalamic nucleus sensitive to?
What does the anterior hypothalmic nucleus trigger in response to warmth?
Heat dissipation mechanisms
How does the hypothalamus trigger heat dissipation?
By activating the PNS
How do inflammatory cytokines and pyrogens act on this area?
By increasing the setpoint to allow inflammatory fevers.
What are the neurons in the Posterior Hypothalamic nucleus sensitive to?
What happens when these neurons sense cold?
They trigger SNS and endocrine outflow to generate and conserve heat
What behavioral components are involved in thermoregulation?
Seeking shelter, putting on or off clothes, etc.
What are the 3 hormones involved in the STRESS response?
What 2 prominent components of the limbic system are interconnected extensively with the hypothalamus?
Via what?
Stria terminalis
Why does learning need to be involved in stress response?
So you remember the bumblebee that bit you
What is the Feeding (hunger) Center?
Lateral hypothalamic nucleus
What is the Satiety center?
Ventromedial nucleus of the Tuberal area
What 3 hormones play a prominent role in hunger/satiety?
What is a 3rd and VERY important nucleus in the hypothalamus for hunger/satiety?
What neuron cell bodies are located in the arcuate for this? What does each stimulate?
-POMC/CART - decreased feeding, increased energy utilization
-AGRP/NPY - increased feeding, decreased energy utilization.
What is the important molecule that comes from POMC/CART when stimulated?
Where is output from BOTH sets of neurons integrated?
At the nucleus solitarius tracturs, which appears to be the SATIETY center.
What hormone stimulates feeding by stimulating AGRP/NPY and inhibiting POMC/CART?
What is the time frame for Ghrelin activity?
Short term
What short term hormone counteracts Ghrelin?
What longer term hormone decreases feeding?
How does Leptin work?
By inhibiting AGRP/NPY neurons
So the four important inhibitory hormones from the gut are:
What is the stimulatory gut hormone?
What is a craniopharyngeoma?
A congenital tumor that is usually calcified and originates from remnants of Rathke's pouch
What is the most common site of a craniopharyngeoma in children?
What does a craniopharyngeoma press on and cause?
Optic chiasm - bitemporal hemianopsia
Hypothalamus - hypothalamic syndrome
What is hypothalamic syndome?
-Increased adiposity
-Diabetes insipidus
-Temp regulation disturbences
What was the treatment for Schizophrenia in India in 1000 BC?
Rauwolfia serpentina
What was the treatment for Schizophrenia in Greece in 700 BC?
Religious intervention
What was the treatment for Schizophrenia in Europe in 1400 AD?
Religious persecution
What was the treatment for Schizophrenia in the US in 1936?
What was the treatment for Schizophrenia in Italy in 1938?
What was the treatment for Schizophrenia in the US in 1952?
Phenothiazines (1st generation typicals)