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48 Cards in this Set

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What part of the anterior pituitary are colloid-filled spaces seen in?
Pars intermedia
What is anterior to the Pars intermedia? Posterior?
Anterior = Pars distalis
Posterior = Pars nervosa
What is the main difference in appearance of the Pars distalis versus nervosa?
Pars distalis = cellular
Pars nervosa = wispy due to unmyelinated axons
What are the 3 types of cells in the anterior pituitary?
-Acidophils
-Basophils
-Chromophobes
How can you distinguish the cell types in the anterior pit without immunostain?
Chromophobes = lacy/weak stained
A/Basophils = darkly stained
What is the best way to distinguish them?
With immunostain
What do the nuclei seen in the neurohypophysis belong to?
Pituicytes
What are pituicytes?
Neuroglial supporting cells
Where are the cell bodies of the neurosecretory cells in the pars nervosa located?
In the PVN and SON of the hypothalamus
What do the axons in the posterior pit release?
Oxytocin and Vasopressin
What does the pancreas look like?
The parotid
What are both the pancreas and parotid made up of?
Serous acini
How can you obviously distinguish the pancreas from parotid?
By seeing the islets of langerhans
Where are intralobular ducts more easily seen?
In the parotid
What ducts does the parotid have that the pancreas doesnt?
Striated
Where would you find
-Intralobular ducts
-Interlobular ducts
Intra - within lobules
Inter - within CT septations
What type of cell does the Pancreas have that the parotid doesn't?
Centroacinar cells
What are the important endocrine secreting units of the pancreas?
Pancreatic islets (of langerhans)
Can the different hormone secreting cell types be distinguished?
No
What are the 4 cell types in the pancreatic islets, and what does each secrete?
Alpha - glucagon
Beta - insulin
Delta - somatostatin
F - pancreatic polypeptide
What is the outermost covering of the adrenal glands?
A connective tissue capsule
What are the 2 broad areas of the adrenal gland?
-Cortex
-Medulla
What is the cortical zone of cells just beneath the capsule?
Zona glomerulosa
What can be seen in cells of the Zona glomerulosa and especially fasciculata?
Frothiness
Why are the cells frothy?
Because these cells contain cholesterol and CEs that supply the precursor for steroid synthesis.
What are the 2 hormones synthesized by the Zona glomerulosa and fasciculata?
-Mineralcorticoids
-Glucocorticoids
Which zone is the target for ACTH?
Zona fasciculata
To what cells do the elongated flattened nuclei in the Zona fasciculata belong?
Sinusoidal capillary endothelial cells
What are the cells in the zona reticularis like?
Small, with few lipid droplets, and darkly staining.
What are 3 organelles that are prominent features of steroid-secreting cells?
-Tubolovesicular mitochondria
-smooth ER
-Lipid droplets
What are the secretory products of the adrenal medulla?
-Epinephrine
-Norepinephrine
What are the 2 cell types in the parathyroid glands?
-Chief cells
-Oxyphil cells
Which cell has the larger cytoplasm and less nucleus?
Oxyphil cells
Which cell type is more numerous?
Chief cells
What is the best way to identify the oxyphil cell?
It is eosinophilic
What is the primary secretory product of the chief cells?
PTH
What are the 3 structures to identify in the Thyroid?
-Follicular cells
-Follicles
-Colloid
Where are the thyroid capillaries in relation to the follicles?
Between them
Where are the parafollicular cells and how can you identify them?
Between follicles - they are huge
What do parafollicular cells release?
Calcitonin
What does TSH do to the follicular cells in the thyroid follicles?
Makes them go from squamous to cuboidal to columnar.
What is the normal appearance of follicular epithelium and colloid?
-Cuboidal
-Moderate colloid amounts
What happens to the follicular epithelium and colloid in an animal that had its puitary removed a month ago?
-Follicular epithelium atrophies and becomes squamous
-High amounts of colloid because there is a goiter
What is propylthiouracil?
A goitrogen that blocks thyroperoxidase activity
What is the effect of treating a normal animal for one month with propylthiouracil?
-Follicular epithelium becomes columnar
-Colloid amounts are low
What type of goiter is created by propylthiouracil treatment?
A parenchymatous goiter
Would shortage of iodine cause a goiter more similar to that due to lack of TSH, or due to blocking thyroperoxidase?
More similar to that caused by thyroperoxidase
Why?
Because TSH is high in both cases, causing the epithelium to go from low to columnar, but more uptake of colloid causes the reduction in colloid amts.