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7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Estrogen
1. Proliferation of endometrium
2. Growth of uterine muscle
3. Increase in size of external genitalia, esp. introitus
4. Breast enlargement and duct development for milk production
5. Fat deposition
6. Relaxation of pelvic girdle ligaments (Relaxin does this in other animals, not much in us)
7. Produced by: placenta/corpus luteum
Progesterone
1. Causes glandular cells lining uterus to store nutrients
a. Glycogen
b. Proteins
c. Lipids
d. Minerals
2. Inhibits uterine contraction
3. Additional growth and budding of alveoli/lobules, preparation for lactation
4. Produced by: placenta/corpus luteum
Prolactin
1. Milk production (NOT same as expression!) NOTE: Breasts are modified sweat glands!
2. Action suppressed in presence of estrogen/progesterone
3. Produced by: pituitary (actually produced by hypothalamus; stored in pituitary)
Oxytocin
1. Induces labor (uterine contractions)
2. Milk expression (some people call it "let down")
3. Positive feedback mechanism as a response to suckling
4. Produced by: pituitaries of mother and fetus
Amniocentesis - Invasive procedure
1. At 4th month (weeks 14-16)
a. Especially important if mother over 35
b. Results in 2-3 weeks - grow cells in culture
2. Over 200 chromosomal birth defects can be detected
3. Down’s Syndrome (extra chromosome 21)
4. Spina Bifida (vertebrae don’t close; spinal cord pouches out; usually in lower back; paralysis of legs, organs)
5. Sex of Fetus
6. Miscarriage risk from procedure: 1/200 (0.5%)
CVS (Chorionic Villus Sampling) - Invasive procedure
1. Btwn 9-11 weeks (major advantage)
2. Sex of Fetus
3. Does not detect Spina Bifida
4. Miscarriage risk from procedure: 1.2%
Zygote (fertilized egg) undergoes cleavage (repeated cell division) and becomes "embryo" as it travels to uterus
a. Assisted by secretions, cilia in oviducts
b. At this point is a blastocyst (appx. 140 cells)
c. Remains in uterine cavity 1-3 days prior to implanting