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51 Cards in this Set

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10 of 48
Chemical substance having two or more different elements in fixed ratio.
compound
16 of 48
Sugar that contains two units of a monosaccharide;for example, maltose.
disaccharide
17 of 48
See deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA
24 of 48
Molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group.
fatty acid
25 of 48
Blood sugar that is broken down in cells to acquire energy for ATP production.
glucose
18 of 48
Genetic defect marked by abnormal hands and feet, slow growth, and mental retardation, due to three copies of chromosome 18.
Edward syndrome
19 of 48
Any substance that ionizes and conducts electricity;electrolytes are present in the body fluids and tissues.
electrolyte
33 of 48
Breaking of a chemical bond such that ions are released.
ionize
20 of 48
The simplest of substances, consisting of only one type of atom (for example, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen).
element
21 of 48
Protein catalyst that speeds up a specific reaction or a specific type of reaction.
enzyme
22 of 48
Inability to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream;predisposes individual to heart attack.
familial hypercholesterolemia
23 of 48
Organic molecule that the body uses for long-term energy storage.
fat
26 of 48
Three-carbon molecule that joins with fatty acids to form fat.
glycerol
32 of 48
Chemical attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion.
ionic bond
27 of 48
Polysaccharide that is the principal storage compound for sugar in animals.
glycogen
34 of 48
Abnormally low amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin, due to a lack of iron in the diet.
iron deficiency anemia
36 of 48
Group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water-notably, fats, oils, and steroids.
lipid
37 of 48
Smallest quantity of a substance that retains its chemical properties.
molecule
35 of 48
One of two or more atoms with the same atomic number that differs in the number of neutrons and, therefore, in weight.
isotope
28 of 48
Weak attraction between a partially positive hydrogen and a partially negative oxygen or nitrogen some distance away, found in proteins and nucleic acids.
hydrogen bond
29 of 48
Splitting of a bond by the addition of water.
hydrolysis
30 of 48
Elevated blood pressure, particularly the diastolic pressure.
hypertension
31 of 48
A charged atom.
ion
38 of 48
Simple sugar;a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis.
monosaccharide
39 of 48
Large organic molecule found in the nucleus (DNA and RNA) and cytoplasm (RNA).
nucleic acid
40 of 48
Bond that joins two amino acids.
peptide bond
41 of 48
Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration;any pH below 7 is acidic, and any pH above 7 is basic.
pH
42 of 48
Carbohydrate composed of many bonded glucose units-for example, glycogen.
polysaccharide
43 of 48
Macromolecule composed of amino acids.
protein
44 of 48
Atom whose nucleus undergoes degeneration and in the process gives off radiation.
radioactive isotope
45 of 48
Nucleic acid that helps DNA in protein systhesis.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
46 of 48
See ribonucleic acid.
RNA
47 of 48
Lipid-soluble, biologically active molecules having four interlocking rings;examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone.
steroid
48 of 48
To build up, such as the combining together of two small molecules to form a larger molecule.
synthesis
7 of 48
Solution in which pH is more than 7;a substance that contributes or liberates hydroxide ions in a solution;alkaline;opposite of acid.
base
8 of 48
Substance or compound that prevents large changes in the pH of a solution.
buffer
1 of 48 Solution in which pH is less than 7;substance that contributes or liberates hydrogen ions in a solution;opposite of base
acid
2 of 48
Excessive accumulation of acids in body fluids.
acidosis
3 of 48
Molecule used by cells when energy is needed.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
4 of 48
Excessive accumulation of bases in body fluids.
alkalosis
5 of 48
Unit of protein that takes its name from the fact that it contains an amino group (-NH2){subscript 2}[I cannot figure out how to use subscript] and an acid group (-COOH).
amino acid
6 of 48 See adenosine triphosphate.
ATP
9 of 48
Organic compounds with the general formula (CH2{subscript 2}0)n1{ss:n1}[I cannot figure out how to make subscript yet] including sugars and glycogen.
carbohydrate
11 of 48
Chemical change resulting in the covalent bonding of two monomers with the accompanying loss of a water molecule.
condensation
12 of 48
Chemical bond created by the sharing of electrons between atoms.
covalent bond
13 of 48
Nucleic acid;the genetic material found in the nucleus of a cell.
deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)
14 of 48
Condition characterized by an abnormally large production of urine, due to a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone.
diabetes insipidus
15 of 48
Condition characterized by a high blood glucose level and the appearance of glucose in the urine, due to a dificiency of insulin.
diabetes mellitus
Substances that accept (react with) hydrogen ions or protons
Bases
Substances that yield hydrogen ions or protons in solution.
Acids
Definition of "accept" i.e. Substances that accept hydrogen ions or protons.
react with