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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Precancerous lesions and cancers of oral cavity
SC papiloma, Condyloma acuminatum, Verrucae vulgaris, Leukoplakia, SCC
Salivary gland diseases
Sialoadenitis (mumps, bacterial), Sjorgen
Anatomic and motor disorders of esophaus
Dysphagia, Heart burn, hematemesis, stenosis, hernia, achalasia
Esophagitis (2 causes, 3 morphological features)
Reflux, Irritants. Features - eosinophils, basal cell HP, lamina propria papillary elongation
In barrett's --> metaplasia from, to. Looks like ?
Str sq to columnar, goblet. Looks like red-velvety mucosa
3 Causes of acute gastritis ? 3 morphological features
Causes - 1. PYlori infection. 2. NSAIDs, 3. Alcohol. Morphology - 1. Erosion of mucosa, hemorrhage, inf. infiltrate
3 forms of chronic gastritis
1. H. pylori (Antrum/all), 2. AI corpus gastritis, 3. Chronic chemical antrum gastritis
3 morphological features of chronic gastritis
1. Mucosal atrophy of parietal cells. 2. Glands destruction. 3. intestinal metaplasia
3 Causes of chronic peptic ulcer
1. Pylori.
2. Z-E syndrome
3. Hypercalcemia
3 Morphology of peptic ulcer
1. 2-4cm, round punched out
2. Clean base
3. Doudenum + lesser curvatue antral part
Developmental anomalies of the small (3) and large (1)intestine
Small - atresia, stenosis, meckel's diverticulum. Large - malrotation
Meckle's diverticulum (origin, where, complications)
origin is failed obliteration of the amphalomesenteric dut. 80cm away from cecum. Complications - Bleeding, ulcers, pernicious anemia
Megacolon (acquired ? congenital ?)
Acquired - chagas. Congenital - Hirchshprung disease (neural crest migration)
Types of ischemic bowel disease injuries . What is the color of the infarct ?
transmural, mural, mucosal.
Angiodysplasia in bowels (what is it, 2 causes, complications)
Dilation of mucosal or submucosal BV. Causes - 1. Osler-Weber-Rednu syn, 2. CREST. Complications- rupture, bleeding
Chron's disease (2 extraintestinal complications, give 3 features, give 3 morphologies)
Extraintestinal complications - 1. Sclerosing choalngitis, 2. Migratory polyarthritis. Features - 1. Skip lesions, 2. full ulcerations, 3. fistulae. 3 morphologies - 1. granular+creeping fat serosa, 2. atrophy of mucosa, 3. HT of muscularis
Ulcerative colitis - 4 features
1. limited to mucosa and submucosa. 2. Pseudopolyps, 3. continous lesions, 4. high risk for cc
Infectious enterocolitis (what do you mention, also give 3 types of diarrhea. Also what is necrotizing enterocolitis)
Mention : 1. diarrhea, 2. Desentery, 3. Viral/bacterial. 3 types of diarrhea - osmotic, malabsorption, exudative. Necrotizing enterocolitis - in neonates mostly, necrotizing inflammation with the entire wall become gangrenous
Malabsorption. Mention 5 things + an example of each
1. Deficient intraluminal digestion (no bile emulsification). 2. Mucosal cell abnormalities(abetalipoproteinaemia, no chylomicrons). 3.small intestinal surface reduction (celiac). 4. Lymphatic obstruction (lymphomas). 5. infections (tropical sprue, like celiac)
Boewl obstruction, mention 4 things
1. Hernias, 2. strangulation, 3. Intusseption, 4. Volvulus
Pathology of the appendix. Mention ?
Acute appendicitis, Tumors (carcinoids, mucocele, mucinous cyst adenoma, mucinous cyst adenocc (-->pseudomyxoma peritonei) )
Cholestasis - Defintion. Give 2 causes, 3 symptoms, and 3 morphologies
Retention of bile salts, cholesterol and bilirubin in tissues. Causes - 1.biliary obstruction, 2. Hepatocellular dysfunction. Symptoms - 1. Jaundice, 2. Pruritis, 3. Hyperlipidemia. Morphology - 1. Plugs of bile. 2. foamy change. 3. fibrosis/cirrhosis
Hepatic failure - mention
General about liver, causes, symptoms
Give 2 causes of hepatic failure and 3 symptoms
Causes : 1. Massive hepatic necrosis, 2. Chronic liver disease, 3. Hepatic-dysfunction(toxic,reye). Symptoms - 1.jaundice, 2.hyperestrogenemia, 3.hepatic encephalopathy
Acute viral hepatitis - stages. Give also 3 morphologies
1. Carrier
2. Incubation
3. Symptomatic, pre-icteric, prodrome.
4. ICteric.
Morphology : 1.balloning degeneration, 2.briding necrosis, 3. cholestasis
Chronic hepatitis, what do you mention ? Also give 3 causes
definition, Etiology, parenchymal changes, cirrhosis. Causes : 1.Viral, 2.Wilson, 3. Alcoholism
Drug&Toxin induced liver disease, what do you mention ?
Bioactivation, immune damage, perdictable/idiosyncartic responses, agents causing hepatocellualar damage, agents causing hyperplasia/neoplasia
Give 3 agents causing hepatocellular damage, and 2 agents causing hyperplasis/neoplasia in the liver
Hepatocellular damage : 1.CCl4 - fatty change. 2. Acetominophen - centrolobular necrosis. 3. Oral contraceptives- cholestasis.
Hyperplasia/neo : 1. Oral contraceptives-adenoma, 2.hepatocellular cc - vinyl
Alcoholic liver disease, what do you mention?
1. Biochemical effects of alcohol, 2. Hepatic steatosis, 3. Alcoholic hepatitis, 4. Liver cirrhosis
What are cytoplasmic inclusions of CK called in alcoholic hepatitis ?
Mallory bodies
Mention 3 things happening in Alcoholic hepatitis
1. Necrosis. 2. Cholestasis, 3. Fibrosis
What collagen types are deposited in the liver in cirrhosis ? Give 3 symptoms of cirrhosis.
Space of disse - IV, Interstitium - I+III. Symptoms - 1. HT, portocaval anastamosis, 2. Malnutrition, 3. Ascites
What gene is defect in genetic hemochromatosis. What is the syndrome called
HFE gene, chr. 6. Bronze diabetes
2nd biliary cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis (cause, what is destructed)
2nd biliary cirrhosis - extrahepatic bile obstruction. Primary biliary cirrhosis - autoimmune, intrahepatic bile ducts. PRimary sclerosing cholangitis- autoimmune, intra/extra bile ducts
2 specials for primary iliary cirrhosis . 2 specials for primary sclerosing cholangitis
primary biliary cirrhosis : Granulomas, Antimitochondrial Ab.
PRimary sclerosing cholangitis : Segmental, Onion skin fibrosis of ducts, ANCA
Cholelithiasis (types of stones, cause for each, color)
Cholesterol - stasis, supersaturation, Grayish-white. Pigment stones - bilirubing Ca, hemolytic anemias --> Black are sterile, Brown are soapy and infected.
Non-neoplastic disease of scrotum, testis, epididimys, what do you mention ?
Inflammation, hydrocele, crypt orchism, epididymytis (mumps, TB)
PAthology of the vagina - mention
Congenital malformations, vaginitis, vaginal adenosis, clear cell adenocc
Give 3 causes for dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Failure of ovulation, inadequate luteal phase, contraceptive induced
Hydatiform mole - definition, two types with chromosomes
Swollen, chorionic villi in grape-like clusters covered by chorionic epi. Compete - diploid 46xx/xy no fetal. Partial - triplod 69xxy, fetal part
Fibrocystic changes and relationship to breast cc - what do ou mentioN ?
Non-proliferative, proliferative, sclerosing-adenosis
Thyroiditis - what do you mention ?
Non-specific lymphocytic thyroidtitis (Autoimmune), Hashimoto, Quervain - subacute granulomatous thyroidtiis (viral)
Cushing syndrome = whhich types ?
1. Pituitary adenoma(cushing disease), 2. Adrenocotrical adenoma, 3.Paraneoplastic syndromes, 4. Iatrogenic.
Adrenocortical neoplasms -which are usually functional ?
adrenocortical cc are usually functional
Chronic and acute adrenocortical insuf. what do you mention (2 acute, 3 chronic)
Acute - 1.withdrawl from steroids, 2.Waterhouse fridrichsen syn (sepsis). Chronic - Addison - AI adrenilitis, 2. TB adrenilitis, 3. Sarcoid
MEN - names, genes, mnemonics
MEN I - Werner, chr 11, PPP
MEN IIa - Sipple, RET chr 10, MPP
MEN IIb - Williams, NMP(-P)\
Congenital diseases of the bone - mention
Aplasia, Extra bones, Fusion, Achondroplasia, OI
Primary brain parenchymal hemorrhages - talk about
Traumatic (HT, aneurysm). Non-traumatic(coagul, vasculitis)
Traumatic parenchymal brain injuries- talk about
Concussion, Contusion, Diffuse axonal injuery, lacerations,
Pathogenesis of glomerular diseases - mention
1.Ab mediated injury - Solube, in-situ, 2.Cell-mediated injury.
Two types of MGN
Type I MGN - immune complexes, Early complement
Type II MGN - C3Nef
3 types of RPGN
Type I - Goodpasure, type II HS, Linear
Type II - SLE, Type III HS
Type III - PAuci immune, ANCA
ATN - mention two types
Ischemic, Nephrotoxic
Hypertensive vascular diseases
Hyaline arteriosclerosis, Hyperplastic Arteriosclerosis. Also contributes to ATH
Aneurysms, 3 things to mention
AAA, Mycotic, Syphillitic
Venous disorders - mention ?
Varicose veins, Thrombophlebitis and Phlebothrombosis, SVC syndrome
Vascular tumors - mention ?
Hemangiomas, Lymphangiomas, Glomus tumor, Kaposi Sarcoma, Angiosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma
Rhuematic heart disease - mention
Rheumatic fever, Rheumatic heart acute/chronic
Stages of ARDS
Exudative, Proliferative (day 10), Fibrotic
Diffuse polmonary hemorrhage syndromes - 3 types
1. Goodpasture, autoimmune
2. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis
3. Vasculitis
Lesions of the upper respiratory tract - mention
Common cold, pharyngitis, epiglottitis, laryngitis
Ulcerative and inflammatory lesions of oral cavity - mention
Aphta, Herpes, candida, AIDS, condyloma
Benign and premalignant epithelial skin tumors
Benign - Seborrheic Keratosis, Keratoachantoma, Verrucae. Premalignant - Actinic Keratosis
Soft tissue tumors - adipose (benign/malignant tumors, markers)
Benign - lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma. Malignant - Liposarcoma S100+
Soft tissue tumors - Fibrous tumors (benign/malignant/markers)
TLL - Keloid, Nodular fasciitis. Benign - Fibroma. Int. malignancy - Fibromatoses. Malignant- fibrosarcoma-->Alpha-SMA+ only
Soft tissue tumors - Fibrouhistiocytic tumors (benign/malignant/markers)
Benign - fibrous histiocytoma-->CD68,Vimentin. Int malignancy - DFSP-->CD34,Vimentin. Malignant - MFH-->CD68,Desmin,Actin
Soft tissue tumors - Skeletal muscle(benign/malignant/markers)
Benign-Rhabdomyoma. Malignant - Rhabdomyosarcoma : Embryonic-CD99,Desmin. Alveolar - Vimentin,MyoD1
Soft tissue tumors - smooth muscle(benign/malignant/markers)
Benign : Leiomyoma
Malignant : Leiomyosarcoma-->Vimentin,Desmin,AlphaSMA
Soft tissue tumors - Peripheral nerves(benign/malignant/markers)
TLL : Traumatic neuroma
Benign : Schwanomma, Neurofibroma.
Malignant : MPNST-->S100, PNET-->CD99,NSE. Clear cell sarcoma-->HMB-45, Vimentin
Soft tissue tumors - synovial(benign/malignant/markers)
Benign - Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath
Malignant - Malignant tenosynovial tumor
Intracorposcular forms of Hemolytic anemias - Mention
1. Hereditary spherocytosis
2. Sickle cell anemia
3. Thalassemia
4. G6PD Def
5. PNH
Extracorposcular forms of Hemolytic anemias - Mention
1. Warm/cold AIHA
2. Microangiopathic
3. HDN
4. Malaria