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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the precise definition of bacterial food poisoning?
Acute disease, usually with vomiting and diarrhea, caused by preformed toxins
produced by bacteria contaminating the food. The period between consumption of food
and the appearance of symptoms is short (< 4-6 hours).
What are the main symptoms in the different stages of syphilis?
Primary syphilis: nontender ulcer(hard chancre)
Secondary lesions: maculopapular rash on skin, and condylomata lata on mucous
Tertiary stage: granulomas (gummas), central nervous system involvement (tabes
dorsalis, paralysis progressiva), cardiovascular lesions (aortitis, aorta aneurysm)
When syphilis is diagnosed in the lab, which antigens are used in the non-treponemal and
in the specific treponemal antibody tests, respectively?
Non-treponemal antibody tests: cardiolipin
Specific treponemal antibody tests: Treponema pallidum
Which are the two different kinds of antibodies which may indicate syphilis? Give
examples for tests demonstrating them!:
Reagin (nonspecific antibody) – RPR, VDRL (flocculation tests)
Immobilisin (specific antibody) – TPHA (T. pallidum hemagglutination), FTA-ABS
(fluorescent treponemal assay – with antibody absorption), TPI (T. pallidum
immobilisation test),
What is the advantage and disadvantage of the FTA-ABS syphilis serologic test
compared to the VDRL test?
Specific (treponemal) tests such as FTA-ABS are more specific, but they can not be used
to follow the efficacy of treatment (because the specific antibodies persist even after
effective eradication of bacteria)
What is the drug of first choice in the treatment of syphilis?
What is the reservoir and what is the vector for Borrelia recurrentis?
Reservoir: human; vector: louse
What is used for the laboratory diagnosis of relapsing fever?
Direct demonstration of bacteria from peripheral blood smear by microscopy (Giemsa
stain or dark field illumination)
What is the first characteristic symptom of Lyme disease? What is the causative
Erythema (chronicum) migrans. Borrelia burgdorferi.
Which antibacterial drugs are of first choice in early stage Lyme disease?
Tetracyclines, amoxicillin
Which symptoms are characteristic for the early and the late phases of disease by
Borrelia burgdorferi?
Early: erythema chronicum migrans
Late: arthritis, cardiac (myocarditis, pericarditis) and neurological involvement
(meningitis, peripheral neuropathies)
What is the reservoir of Leptospira interrogans?
rodents, household animals (dog, swine etc.)
Mention 2 obligate intracellular bacterial genuses!
Rickettsia, Chlamydia
Mention 4 bacteria causing atypical pneumonia!
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Chlamydia psittaci
Coxiella burnetii
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
What diseases are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii?
Louse-borne epidemic typhus
Recurrent form: Brill-Zinsser disease
Mention an antibacterial drug active against rickettsial infections!
Tetracycline, (and chloramphenicol)
What are the reservoir and vector of Rickettsia prowazekii infections?
reservoir: human; vector: louse
What are the reservoir and vector of Rickettsia typhi infections?
reservoir: rodents; vector: flea
What is the causative agent of epidemic typhus?
Rickettsia prowazekii
How can be Chlamydiae and Rickettsiae cultivated?
These are obligate intracellular bacteria, can be culture in experimental animals,
embryonated eggs, and cell culture
Mention an antibacterial drug active against chlamydial infections!
Tetracycline( and erythromycin, azithromycin)
List the serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and the diseases caused by them!
Types A,B and C: trachoma (chronic conjunctivitis)
Types D-K: genital tract infections (NGU, PID), inclusion conjunctivitis
Types L1-L3: lymphogranuloma venereum (STD)
Mention an antibacterial drug effective against Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections!
Erythromycin, azythromycin, tetracycline
Why are penicillins not effective against Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections?
Because of the absence of a cell wall, penicillins are ineffective (penicillins inhibit cell
wall synthesis)
What is the Weil-Felix reaction?
It is based on the cross-reaction of an antigen present in many rickettsiae with the O
antigen polysaccharide found in certain Proteus vulgaris strains (OX19 OX2, OXK).
The test is a tube agglutination test in which these proteus strains are used as antigens to
demonstrate antibodies from the patient’s serum sample
Mention 4 bacteria frequently causing sexually transmitted diseases (STD)!
Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi, Chlamydia
trachomatis, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
Which bacterial species can cause hepatitis (jaundice)?
Leptospira interrogans
Mention a bacterium causing aseptic (serous) meningitis!
Treponema pallidum (and Leptospira interrogans, Borrelia burgdorferi)
Mention a bacterial pathogen which eludes the host immune response by frequent
antigenic changes!
Borrelia recurrentis (and Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
What is the causative agent of febris recurrens (recurrent fever)?
Borrelia recurrentis
What does the fungal dimorphism mean?
The same species is capable of existing in two morphological forms (yeast or mold),
depending upon enviromental conditions (temperature, nutrients).
Which are the fungi causing systemic infections?
Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis,
Paracoccidioides brasiliens
Mention 3 species causing opportunistic fungal infections?
Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus
Mention 3 diseases caused by dermatophytons!
Tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea barbae
Which fungal genera have species belonging to the dermatophytons?
Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton
What is the route of transmission of Sporothrix schenkii?
Traumatically introduced into the skin.
Melyik gombafaj okoz leggyakrabban meningitist?
Cryptococcus neoformans
What are the characteristics manifestations of Candida albicans infections in AIDS?
generalised oral candidiasis (GOC), oesophagitis, endocarditis, sepsis
What are the different forms of pulmonary aspergillosis?
1. Aspergillus ball (in preformed cavities)
2. invasive aspergillosis (in immunosuppression)
3. allergic broncopulmonary aspergillosis
What is the usual source of infection in systemic mycoses?
What is the usual site of entry of fungi causing systemic mycoses?
respiratory tract (inhalation)
Which morphological form of Coccidioides immitis can be found in the human body?
Which human pathogenic fungus has a capsule?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Mention a Candidal disease that develops in mucous membranes