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32 Cards in this Set

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OPEN DOOR POLICY
the policy of granting equal trade opportunities to all countries
U.S.S MAINE
A U.S SHIP THAT WAS REPORTEDLY SUNK BY THE JAPANESE WHICH DECIDED THE U.S INTO ENTERING THE WORLD WAR
EXPANSION
The phase of the business cycle when the economy moves from a trough to a peak. It is a period when business activity surges and gross domestic product expands until it reaches a peak.
ANNEXATION
To incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country, state, county, or city.
CAUSES OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR
For several centuries Spain's position as a world power had been slipping away. By the late nineteenth century the nation was left only a few scattered possessions in the Pacific, Africa, and the West Indies. American battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor suffered an explosion and quickly sank with a loss of 260 men. Evidence as to the cause of the explosion was inconclusive and contradictory, but the American press, led by the two New York papers, proclaimed that this was certainly a despicable act of sabotage by the Spaniards. (YELLOW JOURNALISM)
RESULTS OF THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION
RESULTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
AMERICA BECAME A INDEPENDENT NATION. BRITAIN WAS DEFEATED AND WAS FORCED TO RECOGNIZE AMERICA'S INDDEPENDENCE. BRIATIN LOST ITS HOLD ON WHAT IS PRESENT DAY NORTH AMERICA
RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR
The long war was over, but for the victors the peace was marred by the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the greatest figure of the war. The ex-Confederate states, after enduring the unsuccessful attempts of Reconstruction to impose a new society on the South, were readmitted to the Union, which had been saved and in which slavery was now abolished. The Civil War brought death to more Americans than did any other war, including World War II. Photographs by Mathew B. Brady and others reveal some of the horror behind the statistics. The war cost untold billions and nourished rather than canceled hatreds and intolerance, which persisted for decades. It established many of the patterns, especially a strong central government, that are now taken for granted in American national life
CAUSES OF THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION
BOXER REBELLION
The Boxer Rebellion () was an uprising against Western commercial and political influence in China during the final years of the 19th century. By August 1900 over 230 foreigners, thousands of Chinese Christians, an unknown numbers of rebels, their sympathisers, and other Chinese had been killed in the revolt and its suppression.
PLATT AMENDMENT
The Platt Amendment, a rider appended to the U.S. Army appropriations bill (March 1901), stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until 1934. Formulated by the U.S. Secretary of War Elihu Root, the amendment was presented to the Senate by, and named for, Connecticut Republican Senator Orville Platt (1827-1905).
The amendment ceded to the U.S. the naval base in Cuba (Guantᮡmo Bay), stipulated that Cuba would not transfer Cuban land to any other power other than the U.S., mandated that Cuba would contract no foreign debt without guarantees that the interest could be served from ordinary revenues, ensured U.S. intervention in Cuban affairs when the U.S. deemed necessary, prohibited Cuba from negotiating treaties with any country other than the United States, and provided for a formal treaty detailing all the foregoing provisions.
FORAKER ACT
The Foraker Act, also known as the Organic Act of 1900, established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. President William McKinley signed the act on April 2, 1900 and became known as the Foraker Act for the sponsor, Ohio statesman Joseph Benson Foraker.
TREATY OF PARIS (1898)
signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. The United States paid Spain US$20 million for possession of Guam, Puerto Rico and The Philippines who having thought themselves free of colonial rule fought the United States in the Philippine-American War. Puerto Rico and Guam were also placed under American control, and Spain relinquished its claim to Cuba. The defeat put an end to the Spanish Empire, and marked the beginning of a period of United States colonial power.
16TH AMENDMENT
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
WHITE MAN'S BURDEN
a Eurocentric view of the world used to encourage powerful nations to adopt an imperial role. In this view, non-European cultures are seen as child-like as well as demonic, with people of European descent having an obligation to rule them and encourage their development until they can take their place in the world by fully adopting western ways.
DELOME LETTER
In an 1898 diplomatic incident, the DeLome Letter, which was intended to be a private letter to a friend by the Spanish minister was stolen from the Post Office in Havana and released by Cuban revolutionists to United States newspapers. The minister wrote disparagingly of US President William McKinley "... McKinley is: weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician, who desires to leave a door open to me and to stand well with the jingoes of his party."
This event anticipated the Spanish-American War by firing up an otherwise inactive President McKinley.
The Influence of sea Power
BOOK THAT STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF SEA POWER TO A POWERFUL AND SUCCESSFUL NATION
1898
- Spanish-American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
April 25 - Spanish-American War: The United States declares war on Spain; the U.S. Congress announces that a state of war has existed since April 21.
MaY. The United States annexes the Hawaiian Islands.
July 17 - Spanish-American War: Battle of Santiago Bay - Troops under United States General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
GEORGE DEWEY
American naval officer known for his victory at Manila Bay (May 1, 1898) in the Spanish-American War.
JOSE MARTI
EMILIO AGUILNADO
a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role in Philippine Revolution against Spain, as well as the Philippine-American War in opposition to American occupation.
In the Philippines, Aguinaldo is recognized as the country's first president, though his office is not recognized in all international circles.
WILLIAM SEWARD
was United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.
Family
ALFRED T. MAHAN
a United States Navy officer, naval strategist, and educator, widely considered the world's foremost theorist of military sea power. The USS Mahan and the Mahan class destroyer were named after him. his most influential books, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, and The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793-1812, published 1890 and 1892, respectively.

The books' premise was that in the contests between France and England in the 18th century, domination of the sea via naval power was the deciding factor in the outcome, and therefore, that control of seaborne commerce was critical to domination in war. To a modern reader this may seem obvious and repeatedly demonstrated, but the notion was much more radical in Mahan's time, especially in a nation entirely obsessed with landward expansion to the west.
SANFORD B. DOLE
was a politician and jurist of Hawai'i as a kingdom, protectorate, republic and territory.
QUEEN LILIUKALANI
Queen Liliuokalani was the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian islands. She felt her mission was to preserve the islands for their native residents. In 1898, Hawaii was annexed to the United States and Queen Liliuokalani was forced to give up her throne.
Rough riders
A skilled rider of little-trained horses, especially one who breaks horses for riding.
Rough Rider A member of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry regiment under Theodore Roosevelt in the Spanish-American War.
THEODORE ROOSEVELT
The 26th President of the United States (1901-1909). A hero of the Spanish-American War, he served as governor of New York (1899-1900) and U.S. Vice President (1901) under William McKinley. On McKinley's assassination (September 1901), he assumed the presidency. Roosevelt's administration was marked by the regulation of trusts, the building of the Panama Canal, and a foreign policy based on the motto “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” He won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his mediation in the Russo-Japanese War.
MATTHEW PERRY
the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who forced the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, under the threat of military force.
WILLIAM MCKINLEY
was the 25th President of the United States, from 1897 until his assassination in 1901. His term is remembered for great expansion and conquest. He annexed Cuba and Philippines, and conquered Hawaii.
WILLIAM HEARST
an American newspaper magnate, born in San Francisco, California.
Hearst's father was a multi-millionaire miner and U.S. Senator from California named George Hearst. His mother was Phoebe Hearst, a school teacher from Missouri. At the age of ten Hearst toured Europe with his mother. He was enrolled in St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire at the age of 15.

Hearst was believed by many to have initiated the Spanish-American War of 1898 to encourage sales of his newspaper. His own political career suffered after the assassination of President William McKinley when a satirical poem by Ambrose Bierce he had published a few months earlier alluding to a possible McKinley assassination was unearthed.
yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
protectorate
state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs; protectorates are established by treaty. relationship of protection and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent country or region.