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200 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where are the sympathetic neuron cell bodies found?
Intermedio-lateral cell column
Where are the parasympathetic neuron cell bodies found?
Intermediate spinal cord gray matter
Where are spinal interneurons mostly found?
Intermediate zone b/w dorsal & ventral horns
Which zone of Rexed's Laminae contain the sensory afferents and carry pain information?

What is this zone called?
Zone 2


Substantia Gelatinosa
Where is the dorsal root ganglion found?
Intervertebral foramen
What modality refers descrimative touch, propreoception, vibration & some pressure sensation?
Epicritic
What modality refers the spinothalamic system which convey's pain & temperature (and some light touch)?
Protopathic
What are the spinal cord segments for..

Upper arm?
Thumb & forefinger?
Middle finger?
Little Finger?
Nipple?
C5
C6
C7
C8
T4
What are the spinal cord segments for....

Umbilicus?
Big Toe?
Heel?
Back of Thigh?
T10
L5
S1
S2
Where specifically do the spinothalamic fibers cross in the spinal cord?
Anterior White Commissure
Which motor neurons supply muscle spindles and importrant for giving muscle tone & sense loading force?
Gamma Motor Neurons
What is the primary component of the filtration barrier?
Glomerular basal lamina
What are the 3 functions of mesangial cells?
Phagocytosis
Structural Support
Secretion in response to injury -> IL-1
What precursors are mesangial cells derived from?
Smooth muscle precursors
What cells activate the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by releasing rennin?
Juxtaglomerular Cells (JG cells)
What are two important membrane proteins in proximal convoluted tubules?
Na/K ATPase
AQP-1
What kind of nephrons have the longest loops?
Juxtamedullary nephrons
Which part of the renal tubules increases the acidification of urine?
Distal Convoluted Tubule
What are the final cells that "tweak" urine?
Beta intercalating cells
Where in the kidney is the nephron located?
Cortex
What are the two types of cells in Mesegium?
Mesangial cells

Lacis cells
What cells regulate the release of renin by JG cells?
Macula densa cells
True or False

The light cells (principal cells) of collecting tubules do not have basal infoldings?
False, the dark cells do not have infoldings
The kidney's are primarily innerved by what autonomic which causes vasoconstriction?
Sympathetic
Are the ureters retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal?

Are they covered by serosa or adventitia?
They are embedded in retroperitoneal fat

So are covered by adventitia
To correct what visual impairment would you use a convex, converging, or positive diopter?
Hyperopia
To correct what visual impairment would you us a concave, diverging, or negative diopter?
Myopia
To correct what visual impairment due to an ovular cornea would you use a cylindrical lens?
Astigmatism
What do you call blurred near (reading) vision that occurs with aging?
Presbyopia
What kind of cataracts cause second sight?
Nuclear cataracts
What kind of caracts cause initial improvement of far vision?
Cortical cataracts
What is the functional center of the retina?
Macula
A person with what condition complains first of central vision loss, b/c the peripheral vision is spared?
Macular Degeneration
True or False

Ambylopia is not corrected by glasses?
True, except refractive ambylopia
What is the key to the gluteal region?
Piriformis
What two muscles does the nerve to obturator internus supply?
Obturator Internus
Superior Gemellus
What spinal cord level is used to determine whether epicritic sensation goes to the fasciculus gracilis or the fasciculus cuneatus?
T6!! ON TEST
Do the Fasiculus gracilis & Fasiculus cuneatus convey epicritics or protopathics?
Epicritics
What are the two major barriers to filtration in the kidney's?
Molecular Weight & Radius

Electrical Charge
True or False

Insulin normally appears in the ultrafiltrate?
True
What trasnmembrane protein prevents proteins and macromolecules that cross the basement membrane from entering the Bowman's space?
Nephrin
According to physio, what are the 4 things that contribute to the glomerular filtration barrier?
Glycocalyx of endothelium
Endothelium
Basement membrane
Epithelial podocytes
What are the two mechanisms responsible for kidney autoregulation?
Myogenic Response

Tubuloglomerular Feedback
What is the main stimulus for the tuboglomerular feedback?
Increased [Cl] sensed by macula densa cells
The ability to regulate afferent & efferent arteriolar resistances permits rapid regulation of?
GFR
Up to what age can children have normal intermittent ocular misalignment?
4 Months
What acuity is defined as legal blindness in the US?
20/200
What are 3 acquired defects that can cause defective color vision?
Macular Disease
Optic Neuritis
Occipital Lobe Strokes
Which normal visual impairment will have small disc & almost non-existent cup?

Which normal visual impairment will have large disc & more prominent cup?
Hyperopia


Myopia
Pallor of the optic disc is a result of?
Loss of nerve fibers, which are replaced by astrocytes
Is sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule active or passive?
Secondarily Active b/c relies on Na/K ATPase
What are the five items that are transported transcellularly with Na in the early proximal tubule?
Glucose
Hydrogen
Carboxylates
Amino Acids
Inorganic phosphates
In the early proximal tubule reabsorption of Na into the interstitium causes what to the voltage of the lumen?
Makes it more negative
What 4 ions accompany the paracellulary movement of water (solvent drag) in the early proximal tubule?
Ca, Na, K, Mg
Glucose appears in the urine (glucosuria) when plasma concentration rises above?
250 mg/dl
Preferential HCO3 absorption occurs where?
Early Proximal Tubule
The majority of calcium transport (~65%) is _________, and occurs at the ____________?
Paracellular

Late Proximal Tubule
What channel do you block to treat gout?
Apical urate/anion exchangers
What % of water is reabsorbed in the thin descending limb?
15%
What is the main apical solute transporter in the thick ascending limb?
Na/ K /2 Cl co-transporter
What is the specific tight junction protein that is found in thick ascending limb, which is responsible for the reabsorption of Mg?
Claudin 16 (Paracellin-1)
What % of Mg is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb?
~70%
If a patient has bilateral papilledema, with no visual loss, no pain, and no afferent pupil, what is the cause?
Increased Intracranial Pressure
If a patient has unilateral papilledema, with central vision loss, pain, and has an afferent pupil defect, what is the cause?
Optic Neuritis
If a patient has unilateral papiledema, with monocular blindness, no pain, and an afferent pupil defect, what is the cause?
Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION)
Retinal nerves are nourished by?
Central Retinal Artery or in some the Cilioretinal Artery
Photoreceptors are nourshed by?
Choroidal circulation from posterior ciliary artery
What is the most important regulator of ECaC?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What does the kidney's urine concentrating ability depend on?
A hypertonic interstitium
What do thiazide diuretics inhibit?

Where?
Inhibit Na/Cl transporter

Distal Convoluted Tubule
At the distal convoluted tubule, reabsorption of water depends on?
Plasma Arginine Vasopressin []

ADH or AVP
What does the diuretic amiloride inhibit?

Where?
ENaC

PRINCIPAL cells in cortical collecting tubules
By pumping salts out of the lumen of tubule segments that are impermeable to water, do you dilute or concentrate urine?
Dilute
What are 4 factors that stimulate AVP release?
Increased plasma osmolality

Decreased effective circulating volume

Thirst

Stress
AVP inserts __________ on the apical and basolateral membrane of _______ cells in _________
Aquaporin 2

Principal Cells

Collecting Duct
What is the main cause for the countercurrent multiplier system in the inner medulla?
Interstitial hypertonicity - created by urea & ions (Na....)
What are three types of non Mendelian Inheritance?
Mosciasm

Translocation

Maternal inheritance
What is the most common eye deviation in childhood?
Esotropia
What are 3 mutations that will cause certain pathogenicity?
Nonsense

Frameshift (deletions or insertions)

Altered splice sites
In exercise, which hormones will most likely return plasma K+ back to normal?
Epinephrine
What two parts of a nephron are affected by ADH/AVP?
Cortical Collecting Duct

Inner Medullary Collecting Duct
What are the 4 factors that shift K into cells?
Insulin
Epinephrine
Aldosterone
ECF Alkalosis
Administration of Beta 2 agonists such as albuterol, terbutaline or dobutamine to treat asthma will cause hyperkalemia or hypokalemia?
Hypokalemia
What is the cell that aldosterone affects?

What are the two things it does?
Affects principal cells

Enhances Na re-absorption by enhancing the Na/K pump

Increases permeability of ENaC = K efflux
During potassium depletion, K+ reabsorption is mediated by _________ cells via ____________ transport mechanism that is located on apical membrane of DCT & collecting duct.
Intercalated cells

H/K ATPase
What is the major amino acid that acts as a base in both albumin and hemoglobin?
Histidine
Addison's Disease, causes hyper or hypokalemia?
Hyperkalemia b/c aldosterone fxn is diminished
What are 4 molecules that H+ can be bound to and excreted?
Phosphate
Creatinine
Urea
NH3
What are the 2 factors that regulate H+ secretion/HCO3 reabsorption?
Change in acid-base balance

Factors that alter Na balance also affect H+ secretion
True or False

Increased PCO2 = more acidic pH?
True
What is the long term effect in order to regulate increased ECF volume?
Na excretion
Increased secretion of what, can lead to hypertension in renal artery stenosis?
Renin
What is the main determinant of plasma osmolality?
Plasma [Na]
What is the long term effect in order to regulate increased ECF volume?
Na excretion
What is the hallmark of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy?
Microaneurysms
What are the two main characteristics of proliferative diabetic retinopathy?
Neovascularization

Fibrous Proliferation -> Neovascular Glaucoma
What is the name for the basic bulk of the anterior lobe of pituitary gland?
Pars Distalis
What are the six major hormones produced from the anterior pituitary?
ACTH - adrenal cortex

TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone

FSH - stimulates testicles and follicular dev

LH - stimulates both ovary & testis

Prolactin - stimulates breast secretion

Growth Hormone
What is the name of the posterior lobe nerve ending swelling that contain secretory vesicles?

What do they contain?
Herring bodies


Oxytocin or ADH
What is the name of the specialized glial cells associated with posterior lobe capillaries?
Pituicytes
What two hormones are produced in the hypothalamus but released in posterior pituitary?
ADH

Oxytocin
In what condition to you see a "cherry red" macula?
Retinal ischemia due to retinal artery occlusion
Which kind of drusen is the basis for the beginning of macular degeneration?

What kind of macular degeneration does it precede?
Soft Drusen

"dry" type Macular Degenaration
What rays of the spectrum seem to accelerate macular degeneration?
Blue - like from very bright light
What are three major risk factors for the development of macular degeneration?
Hereditary (most influential)

Hypertension

Smoking
What are extracellular by-products of retinal metabolism that deposit b/w the RPE & Bruch's membrane?
Drusen
What cells make the hormone calcitonin?
Parafollicular (C cell)

In Thyroid Gland
What cells produce parathyroid hormone?
Chief Cells
What hormone increases serum calcium & decreases serum phosphate?
Parathyroid Hormone
What are the 3 ways PTH works?
Bone resorption (increased osteoclasts)

Increased tubular reabsorption

Increasted intestinal absorption of Ca
What are the 4 things that can be palpated on a digital rectal exam?
Posterior wall of bladder

Seminal Vesicle

Prostate

Ampulla of ductus deferens
What are the 4 observed effects of hypophysectomy irrespective of age?
Atrophy of thyroid & adrenals
Retardation of metabolic process
Asthenia (lack of strength)
Cachexia (general ill health & malnutrition)
What is the precurosor hormone from corticotrophs in anterior pituitary?

What hormone from hypothalamus stimulates its release?
POMC

CRH
True or False

Hyperthyroidism causes galactorrhea?
False, Hypothyroidism
True or False

Prolactinoma decreases sexual function?
True
True or False

What hormone inhibits GnRH?
Prolactin
What are the five symptoms of diabetes insipidus?
Polyuria (excess urine production)
Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
Hypernatremia (Increased Na levels)
Hypotension (decreased BP)
Shock
What cells are directly stimulated by growth hormone, which leads to the widening of epiphyseal plates -> extends length of long bone?
Chondrocytes
What are the three hormones important in the growth of a fetus?
Insulin
IGF-II
hPL (human placental lactogen)
What are the hormones that regulate growth after birth?
Growth Hormone
Thyroid Hormone
IGF-I
Cortisol
Insulin
Sex hormones
The growth promoting effects of GH are mediated by?
Somatomedins (aka IGF)
90% of IGF-I circulates in blood bound to?
IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)
What is the main inhibitory molecule released from peripheral organs in order to produce negative feedback of GH?
Somatomedin
What is the main inhibitory hormone released from hypothalamus that controls the secretion of Growth Hormone from anterior pituitary?
Somatostatin (GIH)
True or False

Acute fall in the levels of glucose or FFA leads to increases in GH secretion?
True
What is the most consistent amino acid stimulator for Growth Hormone release?
Arginine
What cells produce and secrete melatonin?
Pinealocytes
What endocrine gland secretes calcitonin?

What cell specifically does this?
Thyroid Gland

Parafollicular (C cells)
What is the major constituent of colloid which contains the thyroid hormones within its molecule?
Thyroglobulin
What is the required amount of ingested iodine to make sufficient amounts of T4?
50 mg a year
Thyroglobulin is formed from what organelle?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What amino acid residue in thyroglobulin is iodinated to form MIT & DIT?
Tyrosine!
What is the important thyroid enzyme that catalyzes the formation of MIT & DIT?
Thyroid Peroxidase
What two neurotransmitters inhibit TSH secretion?
Somatostatin

Dopamine
True or False

Thyroxine is the thyroid hormone of greatest biological activity?
False, Triiodothyronine has greatest biological activity
In hypothyroidism will patients have high or low cholesterol?
High Cholesterol
What are 3 hormones that are normally growth permissive, but if too much then have catabolic effect?
Cortisol
PTH
Thyroid Hormone
In hypothyroidism will patients have high or low cholesterol?
High Cholesterol
What are 3 hormones that are normally growth permissive, but if too much then have catabolic effect?
Cortisol
PTH
Thyroid Hormone
Does hypo or hyperthyroidism have increased levels of free T4 but decreased serum levels of TSH?
Hyperthyroidism
Are hot or cold nodules more likely to harbor malignancy?
Cold
Why does thyroid hormone causes increased heart rate?
Upregulates adrenergic receptors
What is the overall effect of PTH on calcium and phosphorus serum levels?
Increases Ca

Decreases Phosphate
What are the two major sites of action of PTH on kidney?
Thick ascending limb

Distal tubule
What is the major target cell for calcitonin action?
Osteoclast
What is the major target cell for PTH action?
Osteoblasts
What are the two principle hormones involved in bone turnover?
PTH

1,25-(OH)2-D
What are the only follicles present from birth until puberty?
Primordial follicles
What two cell layers begin the formation of the corpus luteum?
Granulosa (major component)

Theca Interna
Ovulation is stimulated by a surge of what hormone from the anterior pituitary gland?
Luteinizing hormone
What are the layers of the placental interhemal membrane?
Capillary endothelium w/ basement membrane

Fetal CT of villus

Cytotrophoblast w/ basement membrane

Syncytiotrophoblast
What are the three structures in the neck that ascend during swallowing?
Thyroid Cartilage

Cricoid Cartilage

Thyroid Isthmus
What is the name of the sign that manifests as venous congestion and cyanosis of the face due to a substernal goiter when the patient raises their arms?
Pemberton's sign
True or False

Hot nodules are almost always benign?
True
A Delphian node develops as a result of metastasis from?
Thyroid Cancer

Laryngeal Cancer
What are the 3 common finding of Grave's disease?
Exopthalmus

Pretibial Myxedema

Hyperthyroidism
What cells make the blood-testis barrier and connect to each together by tight junctions?
Sertoli Cells
Which compartment of the blood-testis barrier is the immunologically protected zone?
Adluminal Compartment
What cells in the testicular lobules secrete testosterone?
Leydig Cells
Cortisol causes reduction of protein stores in all tissues except?
Liver, Heart, Diaphragm
The largest chemical transformation and inactivation of steroid is carried out in what organ?
Liver
During fasting, glucose must be obtained from the body's carbohydrate supply, which it?
Liver
Glucocorticoids inhibit what two enzymes which usually function to breakdown catecholamines?
COMT

MAO
Where is epinephrine stored to await secretion?
Chromaffin granules
What enzyme is found only in the adrenal medulla and functions to convert norepinephrine to epinephrine?
Phenylethanolamine-N methyl transferase (PNMT)
What is the largest and most important end-organs for epinephrine & sympathetic nerve stimulation?
Aggregate Adipose Tissue
The synthesis of __________, is the committed step in converting cholesterol to steroid hormones.
Pregnenolone (by Cyt. P450 SCC)
Which part of the epididymis is innervated by adrenergic sympathetic nerves which fire during ejaculation?

What other part is under sympathetic influence?
Distal Tail


Vas Deferens
Where is the enzyme 5 alpha reductase found?

What does it do?
Stromal cells of prostate


Converts testosterone to 5α-dihyrdrotestosterone (DHT)
What zone of the prostate is where most benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs?
Transitional Zone
What zone of the prostate do most prostatic cancers affect?
Peripheral Zone
Where does PSA normally come from?
Liver, but in prostatic cancer it comes from prostate
What part of the penis constrains expansion thus allows erection?
Tunica albuginea around the corpus cavernosa
Viagra works by inhibiting what?
Phosphodiesterase breakdown of cyclic GMP
What specific GLUT transport maintains glucose concentration in beta cells equal to that of interstitial fluid?
GLUT 2
What is the major second messenger involved in glucagon action, which phosphorylates key enzymes in glycolysis & gluconeogensis?
PKA
What are two inhibitors of somatostatin release?
Insulin

Alpha adrenergic neurotransmitters
What are the six hormones that contribute to the regulation of blood glucose?
Insulin
Glucagon
Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
Growth Hormone
Catecholamines
Thyroid hormones
What hormones are important for prolonged fasting & reduces glucose utilization in peripheral tissues?
Glucocorticoids & GH
What are the two most important amino acid stimulators for insulin release?
Arginine & Lysine
What hormone is important in the short term regulation of blood glucose?
&
Protect against acute & severe hypoglycemia?
Catcholamines
Muscle proteins break down after how many hours of fasting?
>24 hrs
What are the three effects of insulin on lipid metabolism?
Stimulates lipoprotein lipase

Activates LDL receptors

Inhibits hormone sensitive lipase
From what embryonic origin does the thyroid develop from?
Endoderm
What what embryonic origin does the exocrine and endocrine pancreas develop from?
Endoderm
What is the gland responsible for jet lag?
Pineal Gland - melatonin
From what pharyngeal pouch do parafollicular (C cells) come from?
4/5 Pouch
From what pharyngeal pouch does the thymus & inferior parathyroid come from?
3rd Pouch
From what pharyngeal pouch does the superior parathyroid come from?
4th Pouch
The ureteric bud sprouts from what duct?
Mesonephric Duct
The collecting ducts come from what duct?
Ureteric bud -> Mesonephric Duct
The S-tubule comes from what?
Metanephric vesicle
What are the three contributers to the baldder?
Cloaca (hindgut)

Allantois

Mesonephric duct (ureters -> trigone)
Where do germ cells develop?
Yolk sac
What duct leads to the development of the uterus, oviducts, & fornix?

What cell layer is this duct from?
Paramesonephric (Mullerian) Duct


Mesoderm
True or False

Leptin inhibits synthesis & release of Neuropeptide Y?
True
Which energy source has a highest thermo effect?

CHO, Fat, or Proteins?
Proteins
What peptide-signaling molecule made by adipose tissue, decreases hepatic glucose production?
Adiponectin
What peptide-signaling molecules made by adipose tissue, reduce the responsiveness of target tissues to insulin?
TNF alpha

Resistin
What is the name of the hypothalamic nucleus which leptin acts on?
Arcuate Nucleus