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43 Cards in this Set

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What does meosis do?
•Reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cell
How many chromosomes are do gametes have?
23
Are new cells identical the original parent cell?
NO!
Hapliod cells are...
...the product of meiosis, they have half the number of chromosomes in a normal cell
How many times does a cell divide to make gametes?
Four.
What is oogenesis?
Meiosis producing eggs & occurs in the female's ovaries
What is spermatogenesis?
Meiosis producing sperm cells & occurs in the testes
What is the result of the synapsis(joining) of homologous chromosomes?
Tetrads.
What is evolution?
The slow process of change in living populations over time
What are variations?
Differences that occur due to crossing-over among members of a sexually reproducing population.
Whay are variations important?
Because the survival of individuals in a population (some must survive to reproduce)
Why do variations rarely occur in asexual reproducing populations?
Because all of thier genes are identical.
What is a trait?
Any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring
What is heredity?
Passing of traits from parent to offspring
What are alleles?
two forms of a gene (dominant & recessive)
What is the difference between dominant and recessive?
D-stronger of two genes expressed in the hybrid;

R-gene that shows up less often in a cross
What is a dihybrid cross?
cross involving two traits
What are polygenic traits?
Traits controlled by two or more genes.
Who was Gregor Mendel?
An Austrian monk who studied the genetic traits of pea plants, "Father of Genetics"
What were Mendel's traits in
Seed shape

Seed Color

Pod Shape

Pod Color

Seed Coat Color

Flower position - Axial (A) or Terminal (a)

Plant Height

Flower color
How did Mendel produce pure strains?
By allowing the plants to self-pollinate for several generations
What is the P1 generation?

What is the F1 generation?
The parental generation; the beginning generation.

The F1 generation is the filial; first offspring of the P1 generation
What does the Law of Dominance state?
that the dominant allele will always be expreesed over recessive
What does the Law of Segregation state?
that each genetic trait is produced by a pair of alleles which separate (segregate) during reproduction
What does the Law of Independent Assortment state?
states that each factor (gene) is distributed (assorted) randomly and independently of one another in the formation of gametes
What is incomplete dominance?
in heterozygous or hybrid genotypes; where the 2 alleles blend to give a different phenotype
(white+red=pink flowers)
What is an example of multiple alleles for one trait?
ABO blood types
What is polygenic inheritance?
occurs whenever many variations are in the resulting phenotypes such as in hair, skin, & eye color
What are the three reasons we all look so different?
1. Crossing over
2. Independant Assortment
3. Random fertilization
What is the difference between dominant and recessive?
D-stronger of two genes expressed in the hybrid;

R-gene that shows up less often in a cross
What is a dihybrid cross?
cross involving two traits
What are polygenic traits?
Traits controlled by two or more genes.
Who was Gregor Mendel?
An Austrian monk who studied the genetic traits of pea plants, "Father of Genetics"
What were Mendel's traits in
Seed shape

Seed Color

Pod Shape

Pod Color

Seed Coat Color

Flower position - Axial (A) or Terminal (a)

Plant Height

Flower color
How did Mendel produce pure strains?
By allowing the plants to self-pollinate for several generations
What is the P1 generation?

What is the F1 generation?
The parental generation; the beginning generation.

The F1 generation is the filial; first offspring of the P1 generation
What does the Law of Dominance state?
that the dominant allele will always be expreesed over recessive
What does the Law of Segregation state?
that each genetic trait is produced by a pair of alleles which separate (segregate) during reproduction
What does the Law of Independent Assortment state?
states that each factor (gene) is distributed (assorted) randomly and independently of one another in the formation of gametes
What is incomplete dominance?
in heterozygous or hybrid genotypes; where the 2 alleles blend to give a different phenotype
(white+red=pink flowers)
What is an example of multiple alleles for one trait?
ABO blood types
What is polygenic inheritance?
occurs whenever many variations are in the resulting phenotypes such as in hair, skin, & eye color
What are the three reasons we all look so different?
1. Crossing over
2. Independant Assortment
3. Random fertilization