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30 Cards in this Set

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What is Cell division?
The process by which cells produce new cells
Which cells must be replaced often?
The lining of gut, white blood cells, skin cells with a short lifespan
Which cells do not divide after birth?
Muscle and nerve cells
3 reasons for cell division?
Cell growth

Repair & replacement of damaged cell parts

Reproduction of the species
What does DNA do and what is DNA?
Plans for making cells

Deoxyribose nucleic acid, is a long thin molecule that stores genetic information
What are chromosomes?
A long, single, tightly-coiled DNA molecule
What are chromosomes made of?
Proteins
When are chromosomes visible?
Whn the cell is dividing
What is DNA called when the cell is NOT dividing?
Chromatin
What holds together duplicated chromosomes?
Centromeres
What are the halves of a duplicated chromosome called?
Sister chromatids
What does the DNA of prokaryotes look like?
One circular chromosome attached to the inside of the cell memberane
What is the cell cycle?
The phases of a cell during their life before they divide to form new cells
What are the two main parts of the cell cycle?
Interphase and Cell Division
What are the two main parts of Cell Division?
Misotsis, the splitting of the nucleus, and Cytokinesis, the splitting of the cytoplasm.
What is the Interphase?
the longest part of a cell's life cycle

Cells grow, develop, & carry on all their normal metabolic functions during interphase
What is interphase also called?
the "resting stage" because the cell isn't dividing
What three things happen during interphase?
•Cells mature & increase in size by making more cytoplasm & organelles while carrying normal metabolic activities.

•Genetic material of the cell (DNA) is copied or replicated

•Cell makes all the structures needed to divide
What are the three parts of interphase called?
G1, S, & G2 phases
What is binary fission?
The asexual reproduction of prokaryotic cells
Why do prokatyotes divide asexually(binary fission)?
Because they have no nucleus.
What has to occur in the cell division of eukaryotes?
The cells must duplicate so that the chromosomes of the original and of the new cells are exactly alike.
When is DNA copied?

What is cancer? How is it caused?
Interphase

The uncontrollabe mitosis in cells, caused by a protein mutation.
What type of reproduction is cell division?
Asexual
What are the four stages of mitosis in order?
Prophase, Metaphase, anaphase, & Telophase
What happens during prophase?
•Chromosomes become visible when they condense into sister chromatids
•Sister chromatids attach to each other by the centromere
•Centrioles in animal cells move to opposite ends of cell
•Spindle forms from centriole (animals) or microtubules (plants)
•Nuclear membrane dissolves
•Nucleolus disintegrates
What happens during metaphase?
•Chromosomes line up in center or equator of the cell attached to kinetochore fibers of the spindle
What happens during anaphase?
•Kinetochore fibers attached to the centromere pull the sister chromatids apart
•Chromosomes move toward opposite ends of cell
What happens during telophase?
•Nuclear membrane forms at each end of the cell around the chromosomes
•Nucleolus reform
•Chromosomes become less tightly coiled & appear as chromatin again
•Cytokinesis begins
What is the difference between cytokinesis in plants and animals?
In plant, and cell plate forms inbetween the cells and eventually becomes a cell wall.

In animals, a cleavage furrow forms and "pinches" the two celss apart.