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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the definition of pernatal?
From 28 wks gestation to 7 days post-birth
What is the definition of neonatal?
From birth to 28 days of life.
Birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation
37 completed weeks to 41 w and 6 days
What is post-term
Births after 42 completed weeks
Are all low-weight babies pre-term?

However, most pre-terms have low weight (<2.5 kg)
What are three complications of preterm birth?
1) Pulmonary hypertension (likelihood is inversely correlated to gestational age).

2) Intraventricular hemorrhage

3) Necrotizing entercolitis
What are the two types of Respiratory Distress Syndrom in neonate?
Acute Type: Hyaline Membrane Disease

Chronic Type: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
What are signs of hyaline membrane disease?

What is it?
Difficulty breathing within 30 min of birth...has a characteristic x-ray.

Cells lining the alveoli haven't become fully matured into pneumocytes that make SURFACTANT (help relieve pressure)...COLLAPSE!!! Cells remain cuboidal columnar epithelium

Nutrient exchange is POOR
What do you expect to see in the pathology of hyaline membrane disease?
Dilated respiratory bronchioles (forced ventilation).

Epithelial necrosis. Hyaline membranes..
What is bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
3 to 6 months of respiratory distress.

Characterized by SWISS CHEESE looking lungs (signs of forced ventilation)

Fibrosis. Epithelial regeneration with squamous metaplasia in airways (not pseudostratified)
What is an intraventricular hemorrhage?
Vasculature in the brain is weak and poorly formed.

Hypoxia and other pressure changes can cause rupture of the PERIVENTRICULAR BLOOD VESSELS. Result is hemorrhage.
What is necrotizing enterocolitis?
It is an infection involving the ileum, the cecum and the ascending colon of neonates.

Due to likely immature of gut epithelium, bacteria enter the GI tract. Can cause different pathologies.
How does necrotizing entercolitis present?
Abdominal tenderness, swelling. Abdominal obstruction. Discomfort. Peritonitis, sepsis, shock!
What are sequelae of this infection?
Stricture, obstruction Gas build-up (pneumatosis intestinalis), malabsorption (if parts of bowel have to be resected)