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30 Cards in this Set

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What are fluvial processes?
Stream or river related processes
What are three ways fluvial processes shape our terrestrial landscape?
Erosion, transport of eroded sediments, and the deposition of sediments.
What is discharge?
A stream’s volume of flow per unit time.  
Where are floodplains located in relation to streams?
Adjacent to them.
What is one structure than can minimize flooding and retain water resources?
Dams [ "other devices."]
Who formulated the concept of base level?
John Wesley Powell (lake named after him).
So...what is base level?
The level or plane below which a stream cannot erode its valley.
Where is the ultimate base level?
sea level
What are some examples of local base levels?
A larger river into which a stream flows as a tributary, or a lake, or a dam.
What is the Drainage Basin System?
The area occupied and drained by a river system, including all tributaries.
With what earth structures are drainage divides associated?
High points (hills, ridges, mountains) separating adjacent drainage basins.
Drainage basins are open systems, meaning they have... X and Y
Inputs and Outputs...ex...Delaware River Basin
What is a watershed?
A watershed is a catchment area for a drainage basin.
How are watersheds bounded?
Watersheds are bounded by drainage divides (higher ground).
Name one of the rivers focused on in lectures...
Danube...Mississippi...also...Missouri,Ohio, Red River, Delaware, more.
Name one factor that determines drainage pattern for a given area.
Slope, underlying rock type, geologic structure, climate and precipitation.
Name one factor that controls surface run off patterns.
Differing resistance to erosion by various rock beds, relief of the Topography, and structure (faults, folds).
What kind of drainage pattern was focused on in lecture with an aerial photograph of two long "stems" with smaller tributaries flowing into that almost like a pair of tree branches?
Dendritic.
What is the formula for discharge?
Q=WDV
Width, Depth, Velocity.
How are deltas formed?
Where rivers meet base level (usually sea level), their current ceases and the sediment load drops out, forming a broad arc of deposition. High sediment load causes distributary pattern, a number of river mouths.
How do you end up with a delta with various lobes?
The distributary system of the delta changed courses due to flooding events.
Name the two kinds of pollution sources and an example of a source of each.
Point Source: Pipe or Outfall
Non-Point Source: Storm Sewer Drains, Runoff
Which process that also shapes the earth's surface works by removal of lithospheric materials and also deposition of earth materials?
Erosion.
Given a stream profile, how do you calculate the stream gradient?
Rise over Run, or for the average of the entire river, total elevation over total distance = average drop of the river.
Where do we see a trellis drainage pattern?
Appalachians
What word describes a net erosion, cutback with water moving faster on outside and moving slower on inside and drops off sediment in a half circle
Stream meander.
What is an important mineral that rivers are constantly bringing off terrestrial bedrocks and into the ocean?
Salt.
What is the word for a U-shaped body of water formed when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off to create a lake.
Oxbox lake.
What feature of a stream describes sharp steep changes in its gradient – ie a giant stream drop.
Nick Point.
What feature of a stream is described by water moving slower on inside (and faster on the outside) while dropping off sediment in a half circle shape
Meander.