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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
was sound intuitive or not
yes, it was alway sposed to be with film (film was created to accompany sound)
who had the initial idea to combine sound and film
william dickson
what were the chronofilms
100ish short sound films by alice Guy Blache
what were alice guy blache's attempts at sound film
chronofilm (100ish sound shorts)
when did just sound become important

what happened to popularize it

first commercial, telephones, radio brodcasts
what was sound on disk
- dual system: image on film, sound on disk
- influence of dickson who had sound + image cylinders that didn't work
what were problems with the dual system?
- difference in length of disc and reel: 6-7 mins sound v. 11-12 min image
- syncrhonization problems
- no amplification
what is the singin in the rain "yes yes yes no no no" example of
problem of dual system: syncrhonization
what film triggered the audience demand for sound?
the jazz singer
why was no amplification in the dual system (sound on disk) bad
because it is theater style now not 1 person 1 image
what problems did sound on film system solve
synchronization & length differential problems
how was the dual sys syncrhonization problem solved
single system (sound on film)
how was the dual sys length differential problem solved
single system (sound on film)
how does the single system work
- put sound impulses onto photographic image, piece of film with image track has sound track on the side
- 2 lamps read separately
what were the first 2 attempts at the single system
german tri-ergon system
lee deforest's phonofilm
how was dual sys amplification solved?
lee deforest's audio tube
lee deforest's audio tube
takes vacuum tube system and pushes sound throuh amplifier
how was lee deforest received in hollywood
went to hollywood to try to sell system
- they said that sound is fad, expensive (change equipment and theaters), marketing nightmare (language barrier)
who did lee deforest sell his audio tube to
warner brothers
how did warner bros get their start
lee deforest's audio tube
why did warner brothers buy the audio tube
small company, willing to take a chance, thought they could save money by getting rid of orchestras
what type of sound system did warner bros have
sound on disk
what was the first sound feature
don juan
what was warner brothers first sound feature
don juan
who directed don juan
alan crosland
features of don juan
- had music + sound effects (still has sound effects)
- what singing in the rain was referring to with the sword fight
- does well -> do another one
what was the sword fight in singing in the rain referring to
don juan
what was warner bros 2nd sound film, who directed, who starred
the jazz singer, alan crosland

al jolson
features of the jazz singer
- dir Alan Crosland
- starring Al Jolson
- songs in sound, the rest is silent with title cards
are there title cards in jazz singer
when was the big shift from silent to sound
when was jazz singer
shift from silent > sound
cost to industry?
cost to each theater?
300 million
OMG this is during the depression
what were the impacts of sound
1. static camera, actors
2. language problem
3. influx of ny stage
4. big corporations take control of hollywood
5. film speed changes to 24 frames/sec
6. sound redefines cinematic
what was static camera + actors
- unchained > chained camera
- actors cant stray from mic
- acting goes back to proscenium
silent > sound
how did language become a problem
- actors (better for americans, forieng actors couldnt make the transition
- marketing in another language problem
who was the language change (silent > sound) better for
americans, but there had to be speech teachers
silent > sound
what was the influx from ny stage
actors, writers
where did actors + writers come from after silent > sound
ny stage
what actors came from ny silent > sound
broadway (knowledge of how to act)
characteristics of writers silent > sound
- from ny!
- static + talky
- back to proscenium technique because from broadway
why did film go back to proscenium silent > sound
cuz writers + actors from broadway
silent > sound
why did big corporations tke control of hollywood
- because they didnt have the money to make the change to sound film
- split: money people in NY, production people in hollywood
silnet > sound
what was the split between big corporatiosn + hollywood
corporatiosn in ny, production in hollywood
silent > sound
how did film speed change
24 frames/sec (had to speed up)
silent to sound
how did sound redfine the cinematic
- realism had to change, grand acting style has to be toned down
- melodrama (emotions with sound)
what was the 3rd warner brothers film
what was special about it
lights of new york
first all talkie (still vitaphone)
what were the impacts of sound
1. static camera, actors
2. language became a problem
3. influx of ny stage
4. big corporatiosn take control of hollywood
5. film speed changes to 24 fps
6. sound redefines cinematic
light of ny example of....
- first all talkie (still vitaphone)
- abrupt stop of sound (dance floor to office)
- gangster guys huddled around mic