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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when is the incidence of acute otitis media the highest?
in the first two years of life
how does the incidence of acute otitis media vary with increased exposure to infection?
increases
t/f... breast-feeding protects against otitis media
true
how do bacteria attach to respiratory mucosa?
by expressing adhesins which bind the organism to epithelial cell receptors
what are the predominant bacterial pathogens that cause acute otitis media?
haemophilus influenzae, streptococcus pneumoniae
what is the definition of wasting?
weight <3rd centile for age
what is stunting?
low height for age (<3rd centile)
which antimicrobial agents cause toxicity in patients with renal impairment?
aminoglycosides
what is the normal range of hearing?
15Hz to 15kHz
what is sensory hearing loss?
loss of sensory structures (haircells) in the cochlea
what is neural hearing loss?
hearing loss due to auditory nerve dysfunction
what is the definition of mild hearing loss?
25 to 50 dBHL
what is moderate hearing loss?
50-70 dBHL
what is severe hearing loss?
70-90 dBHL
what is profound hearing loss?
deafness - 90dBHL or worse
what is the commonest cause of mild hearing loss in children?
otitis media with effusion
what type of hearing loss is presbyacusis?
high frequency sensory loss
how long is the external acoustic meatus?
one inch
which part of the ext acoustic meatus is cartilage?
lateral part
is the medial part of the ext acoustic meatus cartilage or bone?
bone
how is the external acoustic meatus oriented?
concave anteriorly
what nerve innervates the external acoustic meatus?
V3, C2/3
what is the innervation of the tympanic membrane?
V3, X, IX - very sensitive
name the ossicles
malleus, incus, stapes
what is the function of the ossicles?
transfer vibrations
name the muscles of the middle ear and their innervations
tensor tympani (V3), stapedius (VII)
what is the function of the muscles of the middle ear?
dampen vibrations
what is responsible for transferring vibrations in the middle ear?
ossicles
what structures are affected in the case of hyperacusis?
muscles of middle ear
name the two parts of the internal ear
osseous and membranous labyrinth
which part of the internal ear contains perilymph?
osseous labyrinth
which part of the internal ear contains endolymph?
membranous labyrinth
what is the most common pathogen causing pneumonia is infants aged 1-3 months?
chlamydia trachomatis
what is the most common cause of pneumonia in children aged 1-24 months?
RSV
what is the most common cause of pneumonia in children aged 2-5 years?
respiratory viruses
what is the most common cause of pneumonia in children aged 6-18 years?
mycoplasma pneumoniae
what is the most common causative organism in severe pneumonia requiring admission to ICU?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
which antibiotics are used against strep pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza?
beta lactams, quinolones
which antibiotics are used for atypical bacteria?
macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones
what does legionella mimic?
pneumococcal pneumonia
what do beta-lactam antibiotics do?
inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis
why are beta lactams ineffective against mycoplasma?
mycoplasmas do not have cell walls
which antibiotic does not have intracellular activity?
aminoglycosides
what do fluoroquinolones bind to?
gyrase and topoisomerase
what are aminoglycosides most useful for?
aerobic gram negative bacteria
when is surgical treatment appropriate for otitis media with effusion?
if present for over 6 weeks
t/f... scarring of tympanic membrane will cause a mild hearing loss
false, scarring does not cause any hearing loss
t/f... cholesteatoma causes erosion of bone
true
why does hearing loss occur in cholesteatoma?
erosion of ossicles
what is otosclerosis?
growth of spongy bone which fixes stapes
what type of hearing loss is caused by loss of hair cells wihtin the inner ear?
sensory hearing loss
what is the incidence of hearing loss in children?
approx 0.9/1000 live births and further 0.5/1000 deafened during childhood
t/f... hearing can only be tested accurately after 9 months
false, all children can be tested accurately at any age
which organism causes 95% of lobar pneumonia?
streptococcus pneumoniae
what are the four stages of disease progression in pneumonia?
congestion, red hepatisation, grey hepatisation, resolution
at what stage of pneumonia does neutrophil infiltration begin?
congestion
when are neutrophils most numerous in pneumonia?
red hepatisation
at what stage of pneumonia do macrophages enter?
grey hepatisation
when are macrophage numbers at their highest in pneumonia?
during resolution
which white cell predominates in viral pneumonia?
lymphocytes