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182 Cards in this Set

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not like theese................................................................not like theese.
define poison
any liquid, solid or gas that when applied to the body can, by it's inherent properties interfere with cell function
define toxin
toxicant (poison) that originates from biological processes
define xenobiotic
any substance foreign to the body (harmful or not)
define toxicity and what are the 3 levels
the relative potency of a toxicant (usually mg/kg)

<1 = extremely toxic
50-500 = moderate
5-15 gm/kig = not really toxic
T/F you can see severe effects below LD50 and you can you it to extrapolate the outcome in an exposure
true for both.
what does NOAEL stand for?
no observable adverse effect level
T/F absorption can vary within a species
true.
where will a weak acid be better absorbed, the stomach or intestines?
stomach
where will a weak base be better absorbed, the stomach or intestines?
intestines
T/F NO energy is required for facilitated diffusion
true.
T/F xenobiotics tend to take awhile to move between body compartments
false. it's a very rapid process.
T/F the tissue with the highest concentration may not be where the toxic effects are.
true.
T/F ONLY free drug is (ie non protein bound)
true.
what are 2 tissues that can exclude many toxicants?
testes

BBB
besides the physical barrier, how does the CNS exclude toxicants?
protein concentration is much lower so water insoluble chemicals have nothing to bind to.
what are 2 overall goals of toxicant metabolism (biotransformation)?
increase water solubility
decrease toxicity
where does most xenobiotic metabolism occur?
liver
what are the 3 phase 1 reactions in metabolism?
hydrolysis
reduction
oxidation
what are faster, phase 1 or phase 2 metabolism reactions?
phase 2
what age of animals have decreased liver enzymes?
old and young
what are the 3 major excretion routes?
urine (most common)
GIT
lungs
what's the rule of thumb for half life and body voiding of a toxicant?
10 half lives virtually eliminates a toxicant
T/F a drug can obey both a zero order and a first order process
true!
what is the deal with half life consistency in a zero order process?
not constant
how many grams in an ounce?
28
how many mls in a fl oz?
30
how to convert ppm to %
1ppm = 1 mg/kg = .0001% = 1000ppb
1 g/ton = ?
1.1 ppm
look at the calc problems at the end of L2.
ok.
decontamination is all about........
preventing absorption
T/F you don't really need to decontaminate an asymptomatic animal
false
when is emesis useful and how much is usually vomited out?
within 30-90 minutes of ingestion

40-75% of contents
what are 2 substances that should never be emesed?
caustics

petroleum distillate (hydrocarbons)
what species can't vomit?
rodents
rabbits
reptiles
horses
ruminants
birds

so basically dogs and cats only.
should you induce vomiting in a symptomatic patient? when else not?
NO NO NO they're already vomiting probably.

also if they have seizures, heart disease or recent abdominal sx
hydrogen peroxide as emetic

-mech
-repeat dose?
-who to not give to
GI irritation

yes once after 15 minutes

not really good for cats
apomorphine as emetic:

-mech
-2 routes
-species used in
emetic center (dopamine)

IV or conjuctivally

DOGS not cats
xylazine aka a2 agonists as emetics:

-species
CATS not dogs
when is dilution recommended?
caustic substances or petroleum distillates
what's the best oral dilution for alkaline toxicants?
MILK
T/F you should try to neutralize with oral diluting substances
FALSE
with what substances should you NOT do gastric lavage?
chocolate, iron tablets and other concretions
T/F phosphate enemas are the enemy
true. do not use them
what's the normal dose of activated charcoal?
10x the dose of the toxicant or 1 teaspoon per pound
what kind of stuff does activated charcoal NOT work for
small, polar, ionized particles

heavy metals
what do cathartics do? what's an example?
decrease GI transit time (given with AC) but you don't want to use them in dehydrated animals

sorbitol
what imbalance can occur because of AC?
hypernatremia
what is very effective in removing oil/oil-soluble agents from the skin/fur?
liquid dish detergent (NOT automatic dishwasher stuff)
what about using pet/flea shampoos to remove agents from the skin/fur?
no. use keratolytic shampoos.
what should be used to remove stuff like sap/asphalt and glue traps?
anything oily like peanut butter or vegetable oil followed with detergent.
how long and with what should you flush out eyes?
20-30 minutes with tepid tap water.

NOT visine
what's the most important thing when decontaminating birds?
stabilize them first or the stress could kill them.
when should you induce emesis in a bird?
NEVER. do crop lavage with an e-tube.
what's the drug of first choice for seizures?
benzodiazepines ie valium
how does strychnine cause seizures?
competetive/reversible inhibition of glycine at the renshaw cells

so stops post synaptic inhibition in spinal cord and medulla (rigidity)
what does strychnine look like?
red or green rat bait/seeds
anxiety, rigidity, violent/tonic/tetanic seizures, sawhorse stance, little relaxation

dx?
strychnine
strychnine tx?
diazepam + barbiturates maybe

artificial respiration

fluids/lavage yadda yadda
what plant has signs very similar to strychnine? what is the toxic part of the plant?
water hemlock

base of stem
how does clostridium tetani (tetanus toxin) work? how does it spread?
prevents glycine release

retrograde spread up axon from wound!
sustained contractions w/o twitching + sawhorse stance+ lockjaw

dx?
tetanus!

the sardonic grin too.
how do you treat tetanus?
methocarbamol, diazepam, ace

tetanus antitoxin

usually doesn't work though
t/f the tetanus antitoxin reverses clinical signs
FALSE

only binds unbound circulating toxin
metaldehyde

-source
-mechanism
snail/slug bait

not really sure on mechanism
interferes w/ GABA we think
salivation, anxiety, tremors followed by convulsions

dx?
metaldehyde
how do you diagnose metaldehyde? treat it?
smells like formaldehyde

treat w/ AC and cathartic
5-FU

-source
-mechanism
efudex/fluoroplex aka skin tumor cream

interferes w/ pyrimidine + RNA fxn
what toxicant can suppress bone marrow in the long term
5-FU
how do you treat 5-FU?
emesis if <30minutes

gastric lavage, AC, cathartic
vomit/diarrhea, polydipsia, hyperthermia, restlessness progressing to seizures.

dx?
methylxanthines
what's the standard tx for methylxanthines?
"yakk and ace"

so emesis and phenothiazine
how do you get the total methylxanthine dose in a substance?
you have to add theobromine and caffeine together
how many hershey kisses in an ounce?
5
how do you treat guarana?
control cardiac arrhythmias
control tremors/seizures

u cath, fluids blah blah blah
what's the bad ingredient in homemade playdoh?
salt
what's the problem with eating paintballs?
water deprivation
what's the mechanism of sodium ion toxicosis?
na inhibits glycolysis-->low ATP for Na/K pump-->sodium doesn't leave cells-->water pulled from brain
what's the main thing you'll see on a CBC with sodium ion toxicosis?
eosinopenia!
what species gets eosinophilic perivascular cuffing?
swine only.
cows with ataxia, head pressing, blindness, tremors/seizures, fluid feces, big liver

dx?
sodium ion toxicosis
how do you treat acute sodium ion toxicosis?
diaz for seizures
rapid IV fluids/plain water enemas
how do you tx chronic hypernatremia?
need to be GRADUAL. hypertonic saline over several days
paintballs are non-toxic right?
the ingredients are, yes, but contents are osmotically active and dehydrate
vomiting, ataxia, disorientation, muscle twitches, tremors and just yakked up something neon blue.

dx?
paintballs!
how do you tx paintballs?
emesis! and lavage
what about AC for paintballs and sodium toxicosis?
a) doesn't bind sodium (metal) and

b) contributes to osmotic effect
what's the bad ingredient in ritalin, adderall etc?
amphetamines!
how are amphetamines absorbed in the stomach?
poorly (weak base)
how do amphetamines work?
elevates dopamine and NE in the synapse
hyperactivity, agitation, vocalization, hyperthermia, mydriasis, tremors/seizures

dx?
amphetamines
amphetamines tx?
phenothiazines (ace)
what should you NOT USE with amphetamines?
benzodiazepines
T/F cocaine is lipophilic and absorbed well from all mucosal surfaces
TRUE
cocaine mechanism?
blocks NE, dopamine and serotonin reuptake

also blocks Na channels for local anesthetic effect
how long does cocaine last for?
signs usually resolve within 24 hours.
T/F cocaine and meth are rapidly absorbed and signs occur fast
true.
what happens to acid/base balance with cocaine and meth?
acidosis!
the ___ makes the poison
DOSE
what are the bad ingredients in Ma Huang? mechanism?
ephedrine and pseudo

non-selective sympathomimetic
NE release!
ma huang:

appetite fx
vasc/cardio fx
CNS fx
appetite suppression
vasoconstr and heart stimulation
CNS stim (mydriasis/tremors)
what do you NOT want to treat ma huang with?
diazepam

can increase dissociative state
what necropsy findings with the amphetamines and ma huang and all these uppers? how do you confirm?
none really

confirm with drug test kit
what is serotonin syndrome? 3 types of fx
CNS (dementia, seizures)
autonomic (sal, vom, diarr)
neuromusc (tremors, ataxia)
what are 2 serotonin antagonists?
cyproheptadine and propranolol
how do tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) work?
block sero, dope and NE reuptake
what are TCA fx on

-heart
-GI/mucosa
arrythmias in heart due to slowed conduction

anticholinergic so lower GI motility
vomiting, excitation, hyperthermia, tremors progressing to lethargy, ataxia, coma

dx?
TCAs
how do you treat TCA toxicosis?
repeated AC doses
bicarb for acidosis
valium?
why don't you want to use atropine or MgSO4 in treating TCA tox?
atropine slows gut even more

MgSO4 don't know, but don't
what are phenelzine and selegiline? what does their toxicosis cause?
MAOI's

serotonin syndrome
what are tremorgens?
compounds that can induce serious tremors in one or more vertebrates.
a dog got into got into some fermenting compost and now has wicked tremors.

ddx?
penicillium (tremorgenic mycotoxin)
besides garbage/compost/silage where can tremorgenic mycotoxin come from?
walnuts, dairy, bread
what are the 2 main tremorgenic mycotoxins?
penitrem A and roquefortine
you're in the southeast and you have a grazing animal that has fine muscle tremors that worsen with stimulation, are ataxic and have a wide based stance.

dx?
dallis grass staggers! ergot infection of the seed head
you're in the east or NW and you have a grazing animal that has fine muscle tremors that worsen with stimulation, are ataxic and have a wide based stance.

dx?
ryegrass staggers! it's got a fungus
species that vomit have a higher or lower MLD with zinc oxide/phosphine gas?
higher!
a dog has acetylene or "decaying fish" breath or garlic breath. what can this be and what did it eat?
phosphine gas from zinc oxide ingestion
if you can smell phosphine gas at all, what's the concentration. what's the minimum concentration for signs?
1-3 ppm

7ppm
T/F lead fumes/particles are poorly absorbed in the lungs and absorbs best in the GIT of adults
FALSE. well absorbed

and children absorb it better from the GIT
a dog gets shot. are you worried about lead poisoning?
not really unless in a joint or abcess or somewhere acidic
what does lead do in the body?
pretty much everything bad. mainly neuro and GI fx though.
over days to weeks a dog gets colic, a tense abdomen, is whiny, vomiting, stuporous, has paresis and grand mal seizures.

dx?
lead
what are acute vs subacute lead signs?
acute - mainly neuro

subacute - GI and neuro
what happens to horses with lead?
neuropathy, roaring
how do you diagnose lead?
WHOLE blood lead
what are the histo lesions for lead in:

ruminants
horse
dogs/cats
ruminants: laminal cortical cerebral necrosis

horse: axonal degeneration

dogs/cats: cerebral edema
once again, what does AC not work well for, including lead?
METALS
what's the broad category of drugs to treat lead and the main example?
chelators

Calcium EDTA
read about urea/npn and 4-methylimidazole L7 s28+
ok.
what do fumonisins come from?
corn in hot, dry weather that's stored in high humidity
if a cow gets fumonisins from corn, can you eat it or drink it's milk?
YES
an animal gets lead poisoning. can you eat it and how are it's babies going to do?
NO

crosses the placenta = probably retarded
what causes porcine pulmonary edema AND equine leukoencephalomalacia?
fumonisins from corn!
you have some piggies that are dyspnic, open mouth breathing, cyanotic.

dx?
fumonisins
you necropsy a horse that died that had eaten some nappy corn and it has massive softening of the subcortical cerebral white matter.

dx?
fumonisins (mycotoxins)
you see horses with depression, blindness, ataxia, head pressing, circling, and ICTERUS.

tx?
dx?
fumonisins

no tx they're screwed
where do pyrethrins and pyrethroids come from?
insecticides and flea meds
what's the mechanism of pyrethrins?
bind nerve cells near sodium channels to slow down opening and closing.
WHEN should you give atropine in a pyrethrin toxicosis?
NEVER it is not the antidote and it can make things worse.
what are the 3 toxins in locoweed?
swainsonine
nitropropanol glycoside
selenium
what's the mechanism for locoweeds?
accumulation of oligosaccharides via mannosidase inhibition
how do you tx locoweeds?
you don't

just get them away from the shiz
what causes equine encephalomalacia (ENE) aka "chewing disease"? how long does it take?
yellow star thistle

weeks to months of feeding on it
you see a horse that can't swallow and dips its head in the trough to drink.

dx?
yellow star thistle
so for pretty much all of these large animal plant toxins, there's no treatment once signs appear.
that's right.
how does bromethalin (rat bait) work?
neurotoxin _ NOT anticoagulant
HOW does bromethalin cause neuro dz? are there any lesions?
inhibits Na/K pump which jacks nerve conduction = paralysis

spongy degeneration of WHITE matter in CNS.
what are acute and chronic signs of bromethalin?
acute = convulsant

chronic = paralysis
what's the toxin in bracken fern? what are the signs?
thiaminase

weakness, weight loss, seizures
how do you treat bracken fern?
thiamin injections and blood transfusions
what's the toxin in horse tail?
thiaminase

its just like bracken fern
your cat just ate raw fish. now it's drooling, anorexic and losing weight. what's the problem?
thiaminase
dog has acute onset of euphoria then depressioin. ataxia, bradycardia, dribbling urine.

dx?
it's been tokin'!
so pot and heroin and barbiturates, benzodiazepines and all these CNS depressants have pretty standard tx right? (emesis, AC, blah blah)?
yes
how to barbiturates work?
enhance GABA and inhibit glutamate.
what's a radiographic diagnostic for barbiturates?
you can see some tablets that are radioopaque.
benzodiazepines have a large or small margin of safety?
large. LD is waaaaaaaay over therapeutic dose. BUT signs occur at very low doses.
how do benzodiazepines work?
enhance GABA
what is the ingredient in heartworm that's a CNS depressant? what breeds to worry about?
avermectins

collies, aussies, shelties
besides decontamination, what's another tx for avermectin tox?
lipid therapy. binds lipophilic drugs.
what is the major overall effect of all of these dewormers?
CNS depressants
which antiparasitic leaves a radio-opaque band in the collar?
amitraz!
what's a little different about amitraz tx?
you can use a2 antagonists like yohimbine b/c its an a2 agonist.

DO NOT GIVE ATROPINE.
muscarinic agonists: general idea of what they do.
squeeze things! so glands, lumens get squeezed and smaller. they squeeze junk out hence the secretions.
what do muscarinic agonists do to the heart?
decrease rate!
so cholinergics aka musc/nic agonists give what kind of response?
SLUDDE

sal, lac, urine, diarr, dyspnea, emesis. also bradycardia and miosis.
besides the standard, what drug for muscarinic mushrooms?
atropine
a horse gets the slobbers. what did it eat? tx?
red clover infected w/ slaframine.

atropine
so what's the tx with these cholinergics aka musc agonists?
atropine!
what do tropane alkaloids do and what plant is an example?
competetive MUSCARINIC Ach antagonists
what drug can you give to tx tropane alkaloids aka antimuscarinic (like atropine)?
propranolol
you get a horse with mad ileus and torsion in the LI and impaction colic. it ate some plant. what was it?
solanaceae plant like JIMSON weed
what is solanine?
an alkaloid joined to a sugar (musc antagonist)

solanum plant spp
what are the effects of solanine the alkaloid musc antagonist?
GI irritation hardcore. not really neuro though.
what are the 2 big cholinesterase inhibitors aka INDIRECT musc agonists.
organophosphates and carbamates
so what's the dumbasses interpretation of the SLUDDE response?
fluid coming from every orifice basically
so if muscarinic is the SLUDDE response, what does nicotinic do?
muscle twitches, tremors
why do OPs and carbamates need to be treated quickly?
they "age" and once they do ur done.
what exactly is anticholinergic "aging"?
loss of an alkyl group after phosphorylation
read 16-36 of L11.
OK.